7b.LearningOCMM

7b.LearningOCMM - Classical & Operant Conditioning 1....

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1 1 Learning: Operant Conditioning and Social Learning Chapter 7 (continued) 2 Classical & Operant Conditioning 1. Classical conditioning forms associations between stimuli (CS and US). 2. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, forms an association between behaviors (responses) and the resulting events (consequences). 3 Response-Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence. 4 Classical & Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning involves respondent behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a certain stimulus. Operant conditioning involves operant behavior , a behavior that operates on the environment, producing rewarding or punishing stimuli. B.F. Skinner: Master of Pigeons 5 6 Skinner’s Experiments Skinner’s experiments extended Thorndike’s thinking, especially his law of effect. This law states that rewarded behavior is likely to occur again. Yale University Library
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2 7 Operant Chamber Using Thorndike's law of effect as a starting point, Skinner developed the Operant chamber , or the Skinner box, to study operant conditioning. Walter Dawn/ Photo Researchers, Inc. From The Essentials of Conditioning and Learning, 3 rd Edition by Michael P. Domjan, 2005. Used with permission by Thomson Learning, Wadsworth Division 8 Operant Chamber The operant chamber , or Skinner box , comes with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food or water. The bar or key is connected to devices that record the animal’s (rate of) response . 9 Types of Reinforcers Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold. Reuters/ Corbis 10 Shaping Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations . A manatee shaped to discriminate objects of different shapes, colors and sizes. 11 Shaping Application - Minesweeping Rats can be trained to detect buried mines via the scent of TNT. 12 Learning to Bar Press: Shaping through Successive Approximations
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3 13 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PS1KXYpRZbM The Skinner Box: Not Just for Rats “Lost” episode Free vs. Earned Food Phenomenon 14 Big Bang Theory: Operant Conditioning http://www.youtube.com/watch? 15 16 Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. Conditioned (Secondary) Reinforcer:
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7b.LearningOCMM - Classical & Operant Conditioning 1....

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