8.Memory - The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any...

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1 1 Memory Chapter 8 Psy 12000.003 Memento (2000) 2 The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. What are typical indications? Memorizing Pi http://www.yourdailymedia.com/ media/1162388377/Pi_Freak 3 Daniel Tammett: Pi to 22,500 decimals 4 Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger. 5 What Would Life Be Like Without Memory? The case of Clive Wearing, Pts. I & II http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wDNDRDJy-vo 6 Flashbulb Memory A unique and highly emotional moment may give rise to a clear, strong, and persistent memory called flashbulb memory . However, this memory is not free from errors. President Bush being told of 9/11 attack. Ruters/ Corbis
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2 7 Stages of Memory Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process 8 Information Processing The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory , b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory . Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis 9 Problems with the Model Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. Because we cannot focus all the sensory information in the environment, we select information (through attention) that is important to us. The nature of short-term memory is more complex. 10 Working Memory Alan Baddeley (2002) proposes that working memory contains auditory and visual processing controlled by the central executive through an episodic buffer. 1 2 3 11 Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode Some information (where the dairy section is in the grocery store) is automatically processed. However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort. 12 Automatic Processing We process an enormous amount of information effortlessly, such as the following: Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page. Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day. Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you.
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3 13 Effortful Processing Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories. Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit © Bananastock/ Alamy 14 Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables : TUV YOF GEK XOZ Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) http://www.isbn3-540-21358-9.de 15 Rehearsal The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.
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