9.ThinkingLanguageMM - 5/31/11 Exam 2 Results Thinking and...

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5/31/11 1 1 Thinking and Language Chapter 9 Psy12000 Exam 2 Results • Top Score: 50 • Mean: 40 • Median: 40 • Mode: 46 • N: 47 • SD: 12.3 • Top Cumulative Score: 97 Objectives • What are the basic structures of language • Describe development of language in children • Can/do animals communicate? • What is the relationship between language and thinking? Is one necessary for the other to occur? • What are different types of thinking? How accurate are they? How quick are they? 4 Language Language, our spoken, written, or gestured work, is the way we communicate meaning to ourselves and others. Language transmits culture. M. & E. Bernheim/ Woodfin Camp & Associates Noam Chomsky (1972) “When we study human language we are approaching what some might call the ‘human essence,’ the qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to humans” The Importance of Language http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=OuUAPVFFCRQ&feature=fvwrel
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5/31/11 2 Recommended YouTube Videos on Language http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=PZatrvNDOiE&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=dsaqD9FVRsM&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oimnxkEj4ns http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTbI- • Genie: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hXeJ6qnsdD4 Language Acquisition 1-4 8 Language Structure Phonemes: (phonema [Greek]: a sound uttered) The smallest distinct sound unit in a spoken language. For example: bat, has three phonemes b · a · t chat, has three phonemes ch · a · t 9 Language Structure Morpheme: The smallest unit that carries a meaning. It may be a word or part of a word. For example: Milk = milk Pumpkin = pump . kin Unforgettable = un · for · get · table 10 Structuring Language Phrase Sentence Meaningful units (290,500) … meat, pumpkin. Words Smallest meaningful units (100,000) … un, for . Morphemes Basic sounds (a bit more than 40 in English) … ea, sh . Phonemes Composed of two or more words (326,000) … meat eater. Composed of many words (infinite) … She opened the jewelry box. 11 Grammar Grammar is the system of rules in a language that enable us to communicate with and understand others. Grammar Syntax Semantics 12 Semantics Semantics is the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. For example: Semantic rule tells us that adding –ed to the word laugh means that it happened in the past.
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5/31/11 3 13 Syntax Syntax consists of the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences. For example: In English, syntactical rule says that adjectives come before nouns; white house . In Spanish, it is reversed; casa blanca . Earrings Tiny Red Two 14 Language Development Children learn their native languages much before learning to add 2+2. We learn, on average (after
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2012 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor Conger during the Fall '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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9.ThinkingLanguageMM - 5/31/11 Exam 2 Results Thinking and...

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