10.IntelligenceMM - My Brilliant Brain Intelligence Chapter...

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1 1 Intelligence Chapter 10 Psy 12000.003 My Brilliant Brain • Susan Polgar, Chess Champion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4VlGGM5WYZo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95eYyyg1g5s 2 3 What is Intelligence? Intelligence (in all cultures) is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. This is the conceptual definition. In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts” and it tends to be culture-specific. This is the operational definition. 4 Conceptual Difficulties Psychologists believe that intelligence is a concept and not a thing. Unfortunately, it is treated like a thing…a real thing. When we think of intelligence as a trait (thing) we make an error called reification — viewing an abstract immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing. 5 Controversies About Intelligence Despite general agreement among psychologists about the nature of intelligence, at least three controversies remain: Is intelligence a single overall ability or is it several specific abilities? With modern neuroscience techniques, can we locate and measure intelligence within the brain? Do between group differences in IQ scores (and distributions around the mean for each group) reflect real group differences in intelligence or are they artifacts of the testing instrument and procedure? 6 Intelligence: Ability or Abilities? Have you ever thought that because people’s mental abilities are so diverse, it may not be justifiable to label those abilities with only one word, intelligence? You may speculate that diverse abilities represent different kinds of intelligences. How can you test this idea?
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2 7 General Intelligence The idea that general intelligence ( g ) exists comes from the work of Charles Spearman (1863-1945) who helped develop the factor analysis approach in statistics. 8 General Intelligence Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g) is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis. Spearman, using an earlier approach to factor analysis, found that scores on all mental tests (regardless of the domain or how it was tested) tend to load on one major factor . Spearman suggested that these disparate scores are fueled by a common metaphorical “pool” of mental energy. He named this pool the general factor, or g (Spearman, 1904). 9 General Intelligence L. L. Thurstone, a critic of Spearman, analyzed his subjects NOT on a single scale of general intelligence, but on seven clusters of primary mental abilities , including: Word Fluency Verbal Comprehension Spatial Ability Perceptual Speed Numerical Ability Inductive Reasoning Memory 10 General Intelligence Later psychologists re-analyzed Thurstone’s data and found a weak relationship between these clusters, suggesting some evidence of a g factor. 11
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10.IntelligenceMM - My Brilliant Brain Intelligence Chapter...

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