11.MotivationMM

11.MotivationMM - What Motivates You To Come To Class...

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1 1 Motivation Chapter 11 Psy12000.003 2 What Motivates You To Come To Class? 3 Motivation Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. What’s the difference between a need and a desire ? Extrinsic motivation is something outside the person that energizes behavior. Money, fame, power Intrinsic motivation is something within the person that energizes behavior. Interest, curiosity, personal challenge and improvement 4 Do Rats Have a Protestant Work Ethic? • The earned vs. free food phenomenon 5 Perspectives on Motivation Perspectives to explain motivation include the following: Instinct Theory Drive-Reduction Theory Arousal Theory Hierarchy of Motives Cognitive based theory: Self- efficacy 6 Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned (Tinbergen, 1951). Where the woman builds different kinds of houses the bird builds only one kind of nest. © Ariel Skeley/ Masterfile Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc.
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2 7 Drive-Reduction Theory When the instinct theory of motivation failed to explain most human motivation, it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need (Hull, 1951). 8 Drive Reduction Food Drive Reduction Organism The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis , the maintenance of a steady internal state (e.g., maintenance of steady body temperature). Stomach Full Empty Stomach (Food Deprived) 9 Incentive Where our needs push, incentives (positive or negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives. Henry Murray called these needs and presses. A food-deprived person ( n Hunger ) who smells baking bread (incentive) ( p Food ) feels a strong hunger drive. 10 Question • What need would explain why we seek thrills, excitement? • Why do we like scary movies? • What drives are being reduced by going on a roller coaster or parachuting? 11 Optimum Arousal Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive. Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Randy Faris/ Corbis 12 Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition. (1908-1970)
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3 13 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Hurricane Survivors Menahem Kahana/ AFP/ Gety Images Mario Tama/ Gety Images David Portnoy/ Gety Images for Stern Joe Skiper/ Reuters/ Corbis 14 Self-Efficacy-Bandura • A belief (cognitive component of theory) in one’s abilities to succeed • A sense of control over one’s environment (social, work, etc.) • Self-efficacy can be strengthened with clear goals, social modeling, feedback, and
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11.MotivationMM - What Motivates You To Come To Class...

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