NeuroscienceM - Study Tips Space your learning A little bit...

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PSY12000.003 1 1 Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 2 PSY 12000-003 Study Tips • Space your learning. – A little bit at a time, within a day, and across days. • Paraphrase – In your own words • Transmitter Mind Set (“Teaching”) rather than Receiver Mind Set (“Student”) – Pretend your are reading material in preparation for teaching someone. 2 Scientific American Video • Michael Gazzaniga and Alan Alda talk about split brain research 3 4 Overview of Chapter History Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous System The Endocrine System The Brain The Tools of Discovery Older Brain Structures The Cerebral Cortex Our Divided Brain Left Brain-Right Brain 5 History of Mind Plato correctly placed mind in the brain. However, his student Aristotle believed that mind was in the heart. Ancient Conceptions About Mind Today we believe that everything that is psychological is simultaneously biological . 6 History of Mind In 1800, Franz Gall suggested that bumps of the skull represented mental abilities. His theory, though incorrect, nevertheless proposed that different mental abilities were modular. Phrenology Betman/ Corbis
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PSY12000.003 2 7 Neural Communication The body’s information system is built from billions of interconnected cells called neurons . Note: This is a motor neurons. Other types of neurons look different How Do The Neurons Communicate? Until the early 20th century, scientists assumed that synaptic communication was electrical . However, through the careful histological examinations of Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934), a 20 to 40 nm gap between neurons, known today as the synaptic cleft , was discovered. This discovery cast doubt on the existence of electrical transmission. In 1921, German pharmacologist Otto Loewi (1873–1961) confirmed that neurons communicate by releasing chemicals . Furthermore, Otto Loewi is accredited with discovering acetylcholine—the first known neurotransmitter. 8 9 Levels of Analysis We are a biopsychosocial system. Cellular Level (Interconnected Neurons) Organ Level (Brain) System Level (Information Processing) Individual Level (Human Being) Group Level (Family) Ethnic Level (Culture) Community Level (Society) 10 Neural Communication Note the similarities in the above brain regions, which are all engaged in information processing. Neurobiologists and other investigators understand that humans and animals operate similarly when processing information. 11 Neuron A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different parts. ?
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NeuroscienceM - Study Tips Space your learning A little bit...

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