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1st Week Notes Spring

# 1st Week Notes Spring - 2 of 10 1.2 Sampling populations...

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2 of 10 1.2 Sampling populations Government consumer price index, trends in the economy, determine if there is a recession, employment patterns, population trends, determine if you should be audited, . . . Politics determine which political candidate is more popular, learn what con- stituents are mainly concerned about, . . . Scientific research clinical trials to investigate new drugs, estimation of fun- damental constants, psychological tests, . . . Business predict demand for a product, check quality of manufactured goods, manage investment portfolios, calculate insurance rates, . . . Quantum physics quantum particles are fundamentally described by proba- bility. Nearly every field uses statistics! Outline of course Six primary components of class Fundamentals: what are statistics, parameters, experiments? Descriptive statistics: how can we describe data? Probability: what is the probability of . . . Inferential statistics: inferences about populations from samples. Hypothesis testing: using statistics to prove claims Regression: modeling and prediction 1.2 Sampling populations Example 1 . The number of sexual partners an individual has provides useful information to epidemiologists. An epidemiologist would like to estimate what the mean (average) number of sexual partners is for US college students. Question 1 . What is the population we are interested in studying? Question 2 . How could we determine the true population mean? Question 3 . What are the drawbacks to a census? Anthony Tanbakuchi MAT167

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Statistics: The foundations 3 of 10 1.3 Basic definitions Fundamental terminology data collected observations. ex. number of sexual partners h = { 3 , 2 , 4 , 0 , 6 , 2 , 8 , 7 , 3 , 11 , . . . } statistics methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then or- ganizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting and making conclusions based on the data. population the complete set of all data to be studied. ex. US college students census collection of data from every member of the population. sample a sub-collection of members selected from a population ex. students at this institution are a sample of US college students Two key statistical terms concerning data parameter. Definition 1.1 numerical measure describing a characteristic of a population . ex. mean number of sexual partners for all US college students statistic. Definition 1.2 numerical measure describing a characteristic of a sample . ex. mean mean number of sexual partners for a sample of students from this institution. The parameter is the truth we desire to find but doing a census is not always possible or reasonable. Therefore, we use a statistic to estimate the parameter. Case Example II Example 2 . An epidemiologist would like to determine the mean (average) number of sexual partners for our class. A census is not possible, so the epi- demiologist samples 10 students in the class.
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1st Week Notes Spring - 2 of 10 1.2 Sampling populations...

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