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Review for Final 1 Notes Spring

Review for Final 1 Notes Spring - 2 of 12 1.1 Cautions...

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2 of 12 1.1 Cautions Question 1 . The paper only gives the above data and states that the new chemotherapy agent is more effective in decreasing tumor mass in comparison to the standard agent. You are reviewing the paper for the journal. What do you think about the researcher’s conclusions? Question 2 . What hypothesis test would you suggest the researcher uses? Question 3 . You are also unhappy that the researcher simply reported a differ- ence of 12 grams. What should the researcher report to give more information on their experiment precision? A drug company has developed a new agent that is supposed to reduce cholesterol. The drug company conducts a study of 1,000 individuals who have their cholesterol measured before and after receiving the drug. The results are not statistically significant. They cannot support the alternative hypothesis that the drug reduces cholesterol. Since the survival of the company is dependent on the success of the drug, they get more investor money and repeat the study on another 1,000 patients. Again, they don’t get statistically significant results. After repeating the study 10 times, the 10th study has a sufficiently small p -value to support that the drug reduces cholesterol! The company only reports the good results from the 10th study to the FDA. The drug is approved since they have shown it is effective. 1 Question 4 . What’s wrong with drawing conclusions from only the 10th study? 1 This is a fictitious example that exaggerates what has actually happened in recent times. Anthony Tanbakuchi MAT167
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Review for Final Exam 3 of 12 1.2 Key concepts to take away from this class. Sampling error If you don’t measure the whole population, you cannot directly draw conclusions (or prove hypothesis) from study / experiment results. You must statistically analyze your results to show that they are sig- nificant — indicating that sampling error is not the likely cause of the observed results. Whether you are designing a study or reading experimental results, all good studies and experiments should be composed of the following steps. Design of Experiments and Studies 1. Determine your hypothesis and the margin of error you desire. (Better: determine desired power.) 2. Determine what to measure. Best to use ratio level of measurement.
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Review for Final 1 Notes Spring - 2 of 12 1.1 Cautions...

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