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Unformatted text preview: 2 of 10 1.2 Dependent vs. independent samples Question 1 . What is our hypothesis for this problem? In hypothesis testing we assume the null hypothesis is true and calculate the probability of observing a sample statistic at least as extreme as the one we observe. Question 2 . If the null hypothesis is true, how is it possible that the sample statistic could differ from the null value? 1.2 Dependent vs. independent samples Independent vs dependent samples Independent samples. Definition 1.1 The samples from one population are not related to or paired with the samples values in from the other population. Example 2 (Independent samples) . Taking 100 study subjects and randomly placing half in a group receiving a placebo and the other half in a group that receives an aspirin a day to study its effect of heart attacks. (There is no relationship between individuals in the group receiving the placebo and the group receiving the aspirin.) Dependent samples (matched pairs / paired samples). Definition 1.2 When the samples from the first population have some relationship or pairing to the second population that is sampled. Example 3 (Dependent samples) . Randomly selecting 100 individuals and mea- suring their blood pressure (as sample 1) and then giving them a blood pressure reducing drug for two weeks and measuring their blood pressure again (as sam-...
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