rabies in foxes

rabies in foxes - Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 39(2),...

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278 Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 39(2), 2003, pp. 278–286 q Wildlife Disease Association 2003 MODELING CONTROL OF RABIES OUTBREAKS IN RED FOX POPULATIONS TO EVALUATE CULLING, VACCINATION, AND VACCINATION COMBINED WITH FERTILITY CONTROL G. C. Smith 1,2 and D. Wilkinson 1 1 Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ, United Kingdom 2 Corresponding author (email: g.smith@csl.gov.uk) ABSTRACT: A predictive model of spread and control of rabies in red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) popu- lations was used to evaluate efficacy of culling, oral vaccination, and oral vaccination and fertility control (V 1 FC) as rabies control strategies. In addition, effects of season, fox population density, and a delay in starting control were modeled. At fox densities of 0.5 fox families/km 2 or greater, a single oral vaccination campaign with bait uptake rates of less than 50% resulted in ineffective rabies control. An uptake rate of at least 80% was required to give a better than 80% chance of eliminating rabies. Vaccination was least effective at controlling rabies if applied 1 or 2 mo before the foxes gave birth. Seasonal timing of poison or V 1 FC had little effect on efficacy, which was always more successful than the oral vaccination alone. The longer the delay between the sim- ulated start of the rabies infection and the application of a single vaccination campaign, the less successful was the control, particularly at the higher fox densities tested. At a fox density of 0.25 families/km 2 , all the strategies were equally successful at eliminating rabies. At higher fox densities V 1 FC was slightly less successful than culling, whereas vaccination-only was considerably less successful. The sole use of vaccination is not considered a viable control method for areas with high fox densities. The model suggests that an area of culling centered on the disease focus, plus an outer ring of vaccine or V 1 FC, could be the best strategy to control a point-source wildlife rabies outbreak. Key words: Culling, fertility control, rabies control, red fox, vaccination, Vulpes vulpes. INTRODUCTION Rabies epizootics can spread over large areas, and the main wildlife vector of ra- bies in Europe is the red fox ( Vulpes vul- pes ). Extensive vaccination programs tar- geting red foxes have reduced the inci- dence of rabies across Western Europe, and following discussion (Kennedy et al., 1998) this has resulted in some relaxation of the quarantine and pet movement reg- ulations in the United Kingdom (UK; Stat- utory Instrument, 1999). However there has recently been a rise in fox populations in certain areas of Western Europe (Chau- tan et al., 2000), including urban areas (Gloor et al., 2001). The successful Euro- pean vaccination campaigns may have been the cause of this increase, raising concerns about the risks of larger and more intense rabies epizootics which would be more difficult to eliminate (Chautan et al., 2000).
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2012 for the course MTH 487 taught by Professor Jhonopera during the Spring '11 term at Cleveland State.

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rabies in foxes - Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 39(2),...

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