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**Unformatted text preview: **Let us start with the equation for q ( θ ). The second boundary condition in (12.50) requires that q ( θ ) be 2 π periodic. Therefore, the required solutions are the elementary trigonometric functions q ( θ ) = cos mθ or sin mθ, where μ = m 2 , (12 . 53) with m = 0 , 1 , 2 , . . . a non-negative integer. Substituting the formula for the separation constant, μ = m 2 , the differential equation for p ( r ) takes the form r 2 d 2 p dr 2 + r dp dr + ( λr 2 − m 2 ) p = 0 , ≤ r ≤ 1 . (12 . 54) Ordinarily, one imposes two boundary conditions in order to pin down a solution to such a second order ordinary differential equation. But our Dirichlet condition, namely p (1) = 0, only specifies its value at one of the endpoints. The other endpoint is a singular point for the ordinary differential equation, because the coefficient of the highest order derivative, namely r 2 , vanishes at r = 0. This situation might remind you of our solution to the Euler differential equation (4.100) in the context of separable solutions to the Laplace equation on the disk. As there, we only require the solution to be bounded at r = 0, and so seek eigensolutions that satisfy the boundary conditions | p (0) | < ∞ , p (1) = 0 . (12 . 55) While (12.54) appears in a variety of applications, it is more challenging than any ordinary differential equation we have encountered so far. Indeed, most solutions cannot be written in terms of the elementary functions (rational functions, trigonometric functions, exponentials, logarithms, etc.) you see in first year calculus. Nevertheless, owing to their ubiquity in physical applications, its solutions have been extensively studied and tabulated, and so are, in a sense, well-known, [ 105 , 142 ]. To simplify the analysis, we make a preliminary rescaling of the independent variable, replacing r by z = √ λ r....

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