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Unformatted text preview: ...... for movement W normal o.f earth mass ra'vity force In lho slope g acting A. Increased Shear Stress o External loads (buildings, roads) o Unit wt. increase due to water content increase o Water pressure in tension crack a Seepage forces o Seismic forces (earthquakes, vibrations) B. Decreased Resistance o Removal of lateral support at toe (stream erosion, excavation) o Undermining caused by tunneling, collapse of caverns or seepage o Tension cracks C. Decreased shear strength o t = C + (cr - u ) tan ~ o Increased pore water pressure, uj o Deterioration of cementing material, cJ. . " Originallopography Loss of capillary tension '. .../ Planned tinal grade a ".' lorprojectarea on drying, d and out '. "_ ' ---, o Swelling of clays by 'o", adsorption of water, ct ..-o Earthquakes reduce shear strength of sensitive silts and clays, d and ~t...
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- Fall '08