lect-03 - The Physical Layer Slides from Profs Hou,...

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CS/ECE 438 1 The Physical Layer Slides from Profs Hou, Polychronopoulos and Godfrey
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CS/ECE 438 2 Direct Link Networks ± All hosts are directly connected by a physical medium ± Key points { Encoding and Modulation { Framing { Error Detection { Reliable Transmission { Medium Access Control
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CS/ECE 438 3 Internet Protocols Physical Data Link Hardware (network adapter) Network Transport Kernel software (device driver) Application Presentation Session User-level software Framing, error detection, medium access control Encoding Reliability
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Direct Link Networks - Outline ± Hardware building blocks ± Encoding ± Framing ± Error detection ± Reliable transmission ± Multiple access media (MAC examples) ± Network adapters CS/ECE 438 4
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Hardware Building Blocks ± Nodes { Hosts: general purpose computers { Switches: typically special purpose hardware { Routers: varied CS/ECE 438 5
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CS/ECE 438 6 Nodes: Workstation Architecture ± Finite memory { Scarce resource ± Generally limited by bus speeds, NOT processor speeds Processor Cache Memory Network Adaptor NETWORK memory bus (MBUS) input/output bus (I/O BUS)
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Hardware Building Blocks ± Links { Physical medium carrying { Media ± Copper wire with electronic signaling ± Glass fiber with optical signaling ± Wireless with electromagnetic (radio, infrared, microwave) signaling CS/ECE 438 7
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CS/ECE 438 8 Links - Copper ± Copper-based Media { Category 3 Twisted Pair up to 100 Mbps { Category 5 Twisted Pair 10-100Mbps 100m { ThinNet Coaxial Cable 10-100Mbps 200m { ThickNet Coaxial Cable 10-100Mbps 500m twisted pair copper core insulation braided outer conductor outer insulation coaxial cable (coax) more twists, less crosstalk, better signal over longer distances More expensive than twisted pair High bandwidth and excellent noise immunity
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CS/ECE 438 9 Links - Optical ± Optical Media { Multimode Fiber 100Mbps 2km { Single Mode Fiber 100-2400Mbps 40km glass core (the fiber) glass cladding plastic jacket optical fiber
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CS/ECE 438 10 Links - Optical core of multimode fiber (same frequency; colors for clarity)
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lect-03 - The Physical Layer Slides from Profs Hou,...

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