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lect-10 - Internetworking Simple Internetworking(IP ARP...

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CS/ECE 438 1 Internetworking Simple Internetworking (IP, ARP, DHCP, ICMP) Unicast Routing (RIP, OSPF) Multicast Routing (DVMRP, MOSPF) Global Internet (CIDR, BGP, IPv6)
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CS/ECE 438 2 Internetworks n Reading: Peterson and Davie, Ch. 4 + Sect. 9.1 n Basics of internetworking (heterogeneity) ¡ The IP protocol, address resolution, and control messages n Routing n ----------------midterm exam--------------------------- n Global internets (scale) ¡ Virtual geography and addresses: CIDR ¡ Hierarchical routing: BGP ¡ Multicast routing: DVMRP, MOSPF n Future internetworking: IPv6
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CS/ECE 438 3 Basics of Internetworking n What is an internetwork ¡ Presents an Illusion of a single (direct link) network ¡ Is built on a set of distributed heterogeneous networks ¡ Abstraction is typically supported by software n Properties ¡ Supports heterogeneity n Hardware, OS, network type, and topology independent ¡ Scales to global connectivity n The Internet is the specific global internetwork that grew out of ARPANET
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CS/ECE 438 4 Internetworking ATM Ethernet FDDI
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CS/ECE 438 5 Internet Protocol (IP) n Network-level protocol for the Internet n Operates on all hosts and routers ¡ Routers are nodes connecting distinct networks to the Internet Modem ATM FDDI Ethernet FTP TFTP NV HTTP TCP UDP IP
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CS/ECE 438 6 Outline of Internetworking with IP n Host addressing and address translation n Datagram forwarding n Fragmentation and reassembly n Error reporting/control messages n Dynamic configuration n Protocol extensions through tunneling Note: congestion control is not handled by IP, but rather by TCP
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CS/ECE 438 7 Message Transmission Ethernet (ETH) FDDI ATM Alice Bob
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CS/ECE 438 8 Message Transmission 1. Alice/application finds Bob s IP address and sends the packet 2. Alice/IP looks up Rick s Ethernet address and sends the packet 3. Rick/IP receives the packet, and realizes that it is not destined for him but instead to a host, Bob, on another subnet. 4. Rick/IP looks up Bob s FDDI address and forwards packet to Bob TCP IP Alice IP TCP Bob Rick (a router) IP FDDI FDDI ETH ETH
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CS/ECE 438 9 IPv4 Address Model n Properties ¡ 32-bit address ¡ Hierarchical n Network, subnet, host hierarchy n Three Class Model 0 Network (7 bits) Network (14 bits) 1 1 0 1 0 Network (21 bits) Host (24 bits) Host (16 bits) Host (8 bits) Class A: Class B: Class C:
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CS/ECE 438 10 Host Addressing and Translation
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CS/ECE 438 11 IPv4 Address Model Class Network ID Host ID # of Addresses # of Networks A 0 + 7 bit 24 bit 2 24 -2 126 B 10 + 14 bit 16 bit 65,536 - 2 2 14 C 110 + 21 bit 8 bit 256 - 2 2 21 D 1110 + Multicast Address IP Multicast E Future Use n Decimal-dot notation n Host in class A network: 56.0.78.100 www.usps.gov n Host in class B network: 128.174.252.1 www.cs.uiuc.edu n Host in class C network: 198.182.196.56 www.linux.org
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CS/ECE 438 12 IPv4 Address Model n IP addresses ¡ 32-bit identifier for hosts and router interfaces n Interface: connection between host/router and physical link ¡ router s typically have multiple interfaces ¡ host may have multiple
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