603-pp2 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA Last Time A...

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1 MAS 603: Geological Oceanography MAS 603: Geological Oceanography Lecture 2: The New Plate Tectonics: Lecture 2: The New Plate Tectonics: The Deep Earth The Deep Earth UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA Last Time Last Time A) Introductions Syllabus (assessment etc.) Additional subject material (student choice) Introduction to geology and plate tectonics Today Today’ s Agenda Today Today’ s Agenda s Agenda A) Seismic waves and the Earth's interior B) Seismic Tomography C) Mineral phase changes, inner core nuclear reactors, and outer core magnetism (weird stuff) Internal “guts” of the Earth
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2 Internal “guts” of the Earth Four Major “Geophysical” Layers 1) The Crust 2) The Mantle 3) The Outer Core 4) The Inner Core 4 3 2 1 Internal “guts” of the Earth The 4 layers of the Earth are distinguished on the basis of geophysics, specifically the way that seismic waves travel through the Earth. Seismic Waves Three major types of seismic waves are distinguished: 1) P-waves (Primary) travel by compression 2) S-waves (Secondary) travel by shear 3) Surface waves (Long waves) travel along the surface Seismic Waves P and S-waves are called body waves because they travel through the Earth. P-waves travel through all media and are the fastest (4+ km/s) S-waves cannot pass through liquids and are slower (3+ km/s) Seismic Waves As P and S-waves travel through the Earth, they speed up and slow down according to the density of the materials they pass through. This results in wave refraction. If an earthquake is powerful enough, seismic waves can make it around the world. Propagation of P-waves Seismic Waves But wave refraction results in the formation of “ shadow zones ” where P or S-waves do not occur.
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