603-pp24 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA High Tech...

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1 MAS 603: Geological Oceanography MAS 603: Geological Oceanography Lecture 23: Lecture 23: Geophysics 3: Sequence Stratigraphy Geophysics 3: Sequence Stratigraphy UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA High Tech High Tech “Sonar Sonar ” Techniques Techniques High Tech High Tech “Sonar Sonar ” Techniques Techniques •GLORIA: First deployed in the 1980’s High Tech High Tech “Sonar Sonar ” Techniques Techniques •GLORIA: First deployed in the 1980’s •Capable of surveying 18,000 km 2 per day High Tech High Tech “Sonar Sonar ” Techniques Techniques •GLORIA: First deployed in the 1980’s •Capable of surveying 18,000 km 2 per day •50 m resolution High Tech High Tech “Sonar Sonar ” Techniques Techniques •TOBI: First deployed in the late 1980’s
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2 High Tech High Tech “Sonar Sonar ” Techniques Techniques •TOBI: First deployed in the late 1980’s •Capable of 70 m penetration High Tech High Tech “Sonar Sonar ” Techniques Techniques •TOBI: First deployed in the late 1980’s •Capable of 70 m penetration •2 m resolution Last Time Last Time Geophysics 1) Introduction (various techniques) 2) Gravity 3) Side Scan Sonar Readings (Rikki) 4) Seismology Readings (Justin) Two scales of geophysical analysis: 1) “small-scale” (shallow penetration seismic etc.) 2) “large-scale” (basin wide surveys) Geophysics Geophysics ht p:/ www.spwla.org/library_info/glossary/reference/glossd/images/glsp32f1.gif ht p:/ www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/images/ONeil Fig8.jpg Proposed well Gravity Gravity FREEAIR BOUGUER TOPOGRAPHY By mixing which corrections you do, you can produce different gravity maps of whole countries… Well logging uses multiple techniques to detect lithological changes and oil/gas Geophysical Techniques Geophysical Techniques
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Porosity Logs Neutron Logs ht p:/ www.spwla.org/library_info/glossary/reference/glossd/images/glsp33f1.gif Neutron Logs have a radioactive source (tritium?) that generates neutrons. As they pass into the rock, they lose energy (especially if they hit similar atoms (e.g., hydrogen). Density Logs The Density log is a measure of the formation's bulk density and is mostly used as a porosity measure. Different lithologies can also be determined using Density log based on returned density value. For example, pure quartz will have a bulk density (g/cm-3) up to 2.65, coal 1.2-1.8, halite 2.05, limestone up to 2.75, dolomite up to 2.87, anhydrite 2.98. ht p:/ www.resolve-geo.com/geophysical/index_clip_image004.jpg Seismic Refraction - Measures travel times of seismic waves refracted along a velocity contrast (propagation velocity and path controlled by density and elastic moduli of the material through which waves pass) Geophone Geophysical Techniques Geophysical Techniques Seismic Stratigraphy uses wave reflections and refractions to resolve surfaces between rock types (Acoustic Impedance) Geophysical Techniques Geophysical Techniques Seismic Stratigraphy Seismology (marine surveys) s Agenda
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603-pp24 - UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA High Tech...

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