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ch1-4win95modified

ch1-4win95modified - Chapter 1 1 Most Processors sold are...

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1 Chapter 1
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2 Most Processors sold are actually used in embedded systems rather than actual computer systems following slide indicates the number of units used in each classification The following figure illustrates sales of various microprocessors between 1998 and 2002
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3 Csc 320 Computer Architecture Chapter One 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 1200 800 400 M I L L I O N S O F C O M P U T E R S Number of Distinct Processors Sold 1998-2002 Embedded Computer Desktop Servers
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4 Software is typically hierarchical. As illustrated in the figure above
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5 Five basic parts of a computer
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6 Much like Moore’s LAW originally predicted that performance would double every year. “LAW” was changed to double performance every 1.5 years…holding so far. DRAM Growth Rule: originally predicted that capacity would quadruple every three years…has subsequently slowed down to quadrupling every four years
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7 Die production process A wafer with multiple dies
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8 Introduction Rapidly changing field: vacuum tube -> transistor -> IC -> VLSI (see section 1.4) doubling every 1.5 years: memory capacity processor speed ( Due to advances in technology and organization) Things you’ll be learning: how computers work, a basic foundation how to analyze their performance (or how not to!) issues affecting modern processors (caches, pipelines) Why learn this stuff? you want to call yourself a “computer scientist” you want to build software people use (need performance) you need to make a purchasing decision or offer “expert” advice
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9 What is a computer? Components: input (mouse, keyboard) output (display, printer) memory (disk drives, DRAM, SRAM, CD) network Our primary focus: the processor (datapath and control) implemented using millions of transistors Impossible to understand by looking at each transistor We need...
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10 Abstraction Delving into the depths reveals more information An abstraction omits unneeded detail, helps us cope with complexity What are some of the details that appear in these familiar abstractions? swap(int v[], int k) {int temp; temp = v[k]; v[k] = v[k+1]; v[k+1] = temp; } swap: muli $2, $5,4 add $2, $4,$2 lw $15, 0($2) lw $16, 4($2) sw $16, 0($2) sw $15, 4($2) jr $31 00000000101000010000000000011000 00000000100011100001100000100001 10001100011000100000000000000000 10001100111100100000000000000100 10101100111100100000000000000000 10101100011000100000000000000100 00000011111000000000000000001000 Binary machine language program (for MIPS) C compiler Assembler Assembly language program (for MIPS) High-level language program (in C)
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11 Instruction Set Architecture A very important abstraction interface between hardware and low-level software standardizes instructions, machine language bit patterns, etc. Modern instruction set architectures: 80x86/Pentium/K6, PowerPC, DEC Alpha, MIPS, SPARC, HP
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12
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13 Chapter 4
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14 Measure, Report, and Summarize Make intelligent choices See through the marketing hype Key to understanding underlying organizational motivation Why is some hardware better than others for different programs?
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