02-ProtocolArchitecture

02-ProtocolArchitecture - William Stallings Data and...

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William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 8 th Edition Chapter 2 Protocols and Architecture
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Need For Protocol Architecture E.g. File transfer Source must activate comms. Path or inform network  of destination Source must check destination is prepared to receive File transfer application on source must check  destination file management system will accept and  store file for his user May need file format translation Task broken into subtasks Implemented separately in layers in stack Functions needed in both systems Peer layers communicate
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Key Elements of a Protocol Syntax Data formats Signal levels Semantics Control information Error handling Timing Speed matching Sequencing
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Protocol Architecture Task of communication broken up into modules For example file transfer could use three  modules File transfer application Communication service module Network access module
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Simplified File Transfer Architecture
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A Three Layer Model Network Access Layer Transport Layer Application Layer
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Network Access Layer Exchange of data between the computer and  the network Sending computer provides address of  destination May invoke levels of service Dependent on type of network used (LAN,  packet switched etc.)
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Transport Layer Reliable data exchange Independent of network being used Independent of application
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Application Layer Support for different user applications e.g. e-mail, file transfer
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Protocol Architectures and Networks
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Addressing Requirements Two levels of addressing required Each computer needs unique network address Each application on a (multi-tasking) computer  needs a unique address within the computer The service access point or SAP The port on TCP/IP stacks
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Protocols in Simplified Architecture
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Protocol Data Units (PDU) At each layer, protocols are used to  communicate Control information is added to user data at  each layer Transport layer may fragment user data Each fragment has a transport header added
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02-ProtocolArchitecture - William Stallings Data and...

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