12 - Statistical Applications in Quality and Productivity...

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Unformatted text preview: Statistical Applications in Quality and Productivity Management ECMT 1020 Summer School 09 Chapter Overview Quality Management and Tools for Improvement Demings 14 Points Six Sigma Management Process Capability Philosophy of Quality Tools for Quality Improvement Control Charts p chart c chart R chart X chart Total Quality Management Primary focus is on process improvement Most variation in a process is due to the system, not the individual Teamwork is integral to quality management Customer satisfaction is a primary goal Organization transformation is necessary Higher quality costs less, not more The Shewhart-Deming Cycle The Shewhart- Deming Cycle The key is a continuous cycle of improvement Act Plan Do Study Six Sigma Management A method for breaking a process into a series of steps: The goal is to reduce defects and produce near perfect results The Six Sigma approach allows for a shift of as much as 1.5 standard deviations, so is essentially a 4.5 standard deviation goal The mean of a normal distribution 4.5 standard deviations includes all but 3.4 out of a million The Six Sigma DMAIC Model DMAIC represents Define-- define the problem to be solved; list costs, benefits, and impact to customer Measure need consistent measurements for each Critical-to-Quality characteristic Analyze find the root causes of defects Improve use experiments to determine importance of each Critical-to-Quality variable Control maintain gains that have been made Theory of Control Charts A process is a repeatable series of steps leading to a specific goal Control Charts are used to monitor variation in a measured value from a process Inherent variation refers to process variation that exists naturally. This variation can be reduced but not eliminated Theory of Control Charts Control charts indicate when changes in data are due to: Special or assignable causes Fluctuations not inherent to a process Represents problems to be corrected Data outside control limits or trend Chance or common causes Inherent random variations Consist of numerous small causes of random variability (continued) Process Variation Total Process Variation Common Cause Variation Special Cause Variation = + Variation is natural; inherent in the world around us No two products or service experiences are exactly the same With a fine enough gauge, all things can be seen to differ Total Process Variation Total Process Variation Common Cause Variation Special Cause Variation = + People Machines Materials Methods Measurement Environment Variation is often due to differences in: Common Cause Variation Total Process Variation Common Cause Variation Special Cause Variation = + Common cause variation naturally occurring and expected the result of normal variation in materials, tools, machines, operators, and the environment Special Cause Variation...
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2012 for the course ECON 1002 taught by Professor Markmelatos during the Three '10 term at University of Sydney.

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12 - Statistical Applications in Quality and Productivity...

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