Dobson Chapter 2 Fall2011

Dobson Chapter 2 Fall2011 - Atomic Structure and...

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Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding (Chapter 2) Atomic Structure Models of Chemical Bonding Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Metallic bonding Mixed Bonding Intermolecular Forces
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2 Atomic Structure (Fundamental Concepts) Atom electrons ||| protons ||| neutrons proton mass = 1.67 x 10 -27 kg ||| electron mass = 9.11 x 10 -31 kg
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3 Atomic Structure (Fundamental Concepts) atomic number (Z) = # of protons in nucleus of atom = # of electrons of neutral species atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C (6 protons & 6 neutrons) *The atomic mass is the sum of the masses of the protons + neutrons. *Isotopes of an element have diFering numbers of neurtron >> diFering atomic mass. atomic weight = weighted average of the atomic masses 1 amu/atom (or molecule) = 1g/mol There are 6.0221 x 10 23 atoms (or molecules) in a mole . Avagadro’s Number
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4 Electronic Structure Electrons have wavelike and parKculate properKes (wave‐mechanical model) This means that electrons are in orbitals (shells) defned by a probability. Each orbital has a discrete energy level Maximum electrons In sub-shells s = 2 p = 6 d = 10 f = 14 Bohr Model Bohr Model Wave-Mechanical Model
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Electronic Structure
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6 1 s 2 s 2 p K -shell n = 1 L -shell n = 2 3 s 3 p M -shell n = 3 3 d 4 s 4 p 4 d Energy N -shell n = 4 • have discrete energy states • tend to occupy lowest available energy state Electrons. .. Closer to nucleus has lower energy state Energy increases as you move up the subshells (s…p…d) Overlap between shells (3d…4s) Electronic Energy States
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7 The flling oF electronic energy states is governed by the Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule According to the Schrödinger wave equation, the wave function that describes allowable energy states for electrons to occupy in an atom is characterized by its quantum numbers: n, l, m, and s. n = The principal quantum number . It describes the energy of a given state . l = The angular momentum quantum number . The higher the angular momentum quantum number, the lower the probability of the electron being near the nucleus, and vice versa. It determines the geometric characteristics (or shape) of the electron probability distribution . m = The magnetic quantum number . Describes the orientation of the electron orbital magnetic field with respect to an applied field. This number determines the orientation in space of the electron probability distribution . Since m affects the energy of the electrons only when they
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course EMA 3010 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Dobson Chapter 2 Fall2011 - Atomic Structure and...

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