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Exam 1 Review

# Exam 1 Review - Exam Format Short Answer ~ 80...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam Format Short Answer ~ 80% Calculations ~ 20% *Bring a calculator but… it’s only function can be to calculate. No iPhone, iPads, iPods, etc. Chapter 1: Important Points Materials Science: Investigating the properties of materials and the relationship between a material’s structure and its properties and developing new materials. Materials Engineering: Using information on these structure-property relationships to design new materials with tailored functions and/or to create new products or systems using existing materials, and/or to develop techniques for processing materials. Chapter 1: Important Points Structure: The arrangement of a material’s constituent components. Sub-atomic - Atomic - Microscopic – Macroscopic Property: The response of a material to an external stimulus (e.g. deformation, heating, reflection of light, emission of light, etc.). Types of materials and their properties Chapter 1: Important Points Six Categories of Properties: [1] Mechanical (Force > Deformation) [2] Electrical (Electrical Field > Conductivity) [3] Thermal (Heating > Heat Capacity/Thermal Conductivity) [4] Magnetic (Magnetic Field > Attraction/repulsion & magnitude of response) [5] Optical (Light > Reflection/Refraction) [6] Deteriorative (e.g. Chemical Exposure > Breakdown) Chapter 2: Important Points Atom – electrons ||| protons ||| neutrons •  atomic number (Z) •  atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12C (6 protons & 6 neutrons) *The atomic mass is the sum of the masses of the protons + neutrons. *Isotopes of an element have diﬀering numbers of neurtron >> diﬀering atomic mass. •  atomic weight = weighted average of the atomic masses 1 amu/atom (or molecule) = 1g/mol There are 6.0221 x 1023 atoms (or molecules) in a mole . Avagadro’s Number 5 Chapter 2: Important Points Electronic Structure According to the Schrödinger wave equation, the wave function that describes allowable energy states for electrons to occupy in an atom is characterized by its quantum numbers: n, l, m, and s. n = The principal quantum number. It describes the energy of a given state. l= The angular momentum quantum number. The higher the angular momentum quantum number, the lower the probability of the electron being near the nucleus, and vice versa. It determines the geometric characteristics (or shape) of the electron probability distribution. m = The magnetic quantum number. Describes the orientation of the electron orbital magnetic field with respect to an applied field. This number determines the orientation in space of the electron probability distribution. Since m affects the energy of the electrons only when they are in an applied field, in the absence of a field, electrons having different m values may still have the same energy. s = The spin quantum number. This is the quantum number that identifies the electrons in a state as being either "spin up" or "spin down”. This quantum number is very important for determining magnetic effects in matter. Chapter 2: Important Points Periodic Table and Electronegativity Types and nature of chemical bonds % Ionic Character Chapter 3: Important Points Crystalline vs. Non-crystalline Unit cell and crystal lattice Metallic crystal structures with an emphasis on cubic lattices Cube edge length and how it can be used to quantify other lattice and material parameters Quantitative characterization of lattices and materials The seven crystal systems and how they differ Defining and drawing points, lines and planes in the cubic crystal system. X-ray diffraction and Braggs law Chapter 5: Important Points Types of defects and why they occur Quantifying vacancies Substitution rules Concentrations Types of microscopy and their specific applications ...
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