Final Exam 2010

Final Exam 2010 - Biology
E‐65C

 Final
Exam
...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Biology
E‐65C

 Final
Exam
 Name:
 1) What
type
of
vertebrate
is
this?
(1
point)
 
 2) Is
the
pelvis
being
passed
around
a
male
or
female
pelvis?
(1
point)
 3) What
is
the
name
of
this
bone?
(1
point)
 4) Is
the
bone
from
question
#3
a
left
or
a
right?
(1
point)
 5) List
the
distal
bones
of
the
wrist
in
order
starting
with
the
most
lateral
bone
 and
ending
with
the
most
medial
bone
when
the
limb
is
in
anatomical
 position.
(4
points)
 6) The
picture
below
has
been
taken
from
the
kidney.

What
two
types
of
 epithelial
tissue
are
pictured
here?
(2
points) 
 
 1
 7) What
category
of
tissue
is
in
the
picture
below?
(1
point)
 
 8) The
picture
below
is
a
type
of
connective
tissue.

What
is
the
name
of
this
 type
of
connective
tissue?
(1
point)

List
one
function
of
this
type
of
tissue
(1
 point)
 
 
 2
 The
picture
below
is
the
dorsal
view
of
the
cat
left
hind
limb.

Based
on
the
numbers
 on
the
picture
answer
the
questions
below.
(1
point
each)
 9) What
is
the
name
of
the
muscle
that
is
labeled
#18?
 10)What
is
the
name
of
the
muscle
that
is
labeled
#5?
 11)What
is
the
name
of
the
muscle
that
is
labeled
#8?
 12)What
is
the
name
of
the
muscle
that
is
labeled
#6?
 13)What
is
the
name
of
the
muscle
that
is
labeled
#9?
 
 
 
 3
 The
picture
below
is
the
medial
aspect
of
the
cat
left
hind
limb.

Based
on
the
 numbers
on
the
picture
answer
the
questions
below.
(1
point
each)
 14)What
is
the
name
of
the
muscle
that
is
labeled
#8?
 15)What
is
the
name
of
the
muscle
that
is
labeled
#14?
 
 
 4
 Multiple
Choice
–
1
point
each
 
 16)A
communication
signal
that
is
released
from
a
cell
into
the
circulatory
 system
to
act
on
a
distant
target
is
an:
 a) Autocrine
signal
 b) Paracrine
signal
 c) Endocrine
signal
 17)If
you
increase
the
distance
a
molecule
has
to
diffuse,
the
rate
of
diffusion
 will:
 a) Increase
 b) Decrease
 c) Remain
the
same
 
 18)The
tissue
type
pictured
below
is:
(1
point)
 a) Cartilage
 b) Connective
tissue
 c) Avascular
 d) All
of
the
above
 
 
 
 19)Macrophages
(1
point)
 a) Are
small
cells
that
secrete
histamine
 b) Include
T‐cells
and
B‐cells
 c) Produce
melanin
 d) None
of
the
above
 
 
 
 
 
 
 20)Cells
that
resorb
bone
matrix
are:
(1
point)
 a)

Osteoblasts
 b)

Osteocytes
 c)

Osteoids
 d)

None
of
the
above
 5
 
 21)Circumferential
lamellae
(1
point)
 a) form
layers
around
a
vascular
channel
 b) form
layers
in
small
struts
 c) form
layers
around
the
surface
of
bone
underneath
the
periosteum
 d) None
of
the
above
 
 
 22)Which
of
the
following
does
not
directly
or
indirectly
require
an
energy
 source?
 a) Primary
active
transport
 b) Operation
of
the
sodium‐potassium
pump
 c) The
mechanism
used
by
cells
to
produce
a
calcium
ion
gradient
across
the
 plasma
membrane
 d) Facilitate
diffusion
of
glucose
across
a
plasma
membrane
 e) Secondary
active
transport
 23)Transitional
epithelium
is
found
in
 a) The
urinary
system
 b) The
respiratory
system
 c) The
digestive
system
 d) The
reproductive
system
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 24)
The
most
abundant
formed
elements
of
blood
are
 a) Plasma
 b) Erythrocytes
 c) Platelets
 d) Leukocytes
 e) Proteins
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 25)
Which
cells
have
a
ruffled
border
and
secrete
hydrochloric
acid?
 a) Chondrocytes
 b) Osteocytes
 c) Osteogenic
cells
 d) Osteoblasts
 e) Osteoclasts
 26)A
condyloid
joint

 a)
Is
a
biaxial
joint
 b)
Includes
the
femur
into
the
acetabulum
of
the
pelvis
 c)
Includes
the
radiocarpal
joint
of
the
wrist
 d)
A
&
C
 e)
A
&
B
 6
 
 
 
 
 27)Lap
sutures
 
 a)
Have
straight
nonoverlapping
edges
 
 b)
Have
overlapping
beveled
edges
 
 c)
Have
interlocking
lines
that
connect
them
 
 d)
None
of
the
above
 
 28)
Range
of
motion
is
determined
by:
 
 a)
The
structure
of
the
articular
sufaces
 
 b)
The
strength
of
ligaments
and
tendons
 
 c)
The
actions
of
muscles
 
 d)
All
of
the
above
 e)
None
of
the
above
 29)An
increase
in
the
size
of
a
body
part
or
the
organism
is
 a. Usually
accomplished
by
increasing
the
number
of
cells
 b. Can
be
caused
by
an
increase
in
the
size
of
cells
 c. Occurs
because
constructive
activities
occur
at
a
faster
rate
than
 destructive
ones
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 30)Negative
feedback
 a. Output
increases
the
original
stimulus
 b. Output
can
shut
off
the
original
stimulus
 c. Is
exemplified
by
enhancement
of
labor
contractions
by
oxytocin
at
 birth
 d. None
of
the
above
 31)Lipids
 a. Contain
carbon,
hydrogen
and
oxygen
in
a
1:2:1
ratio
 b. Form
essential
cellular
components
and
energy
reserves
 c. Include
fatty
acids
and
eicosanoids
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 f. A
&
B
 g. B
&
C
 
 
 32)The
primary
structure
of
a
protein
 a. Is
an
alpha
helix
 b. Is
represented
by
a
globular
molecule
 c. Is
the
chain
and
sequence
of
amino
acids
in
the
protein
 d. None
of
the
above
 7
 
 33)Desmosomes
 a. Acts
to
distribute
tension
throughout
the
sheets
of
cells
to
prevent
 tearing
 b. Form
an
impermeable
junction
that
encircles
the
cell
 c. Prevent
molecules
from
passing
through
the
extracellular
matrix
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 
 
 34)Epithelial
tissue
can
be
classified
 a. By
shape
of
the
cells
 b. By
size
of
the
cells
 c. By
the
number
of
layers
 d. A
&
C
 e. A
&
B
 f. B
&
C
 
 35)Connective
tissue
 a. Functions
in
binding
and
support,
protection,
insulation
and
transport
 b. Is
all
avascular
 c. Is
largely
composed
of
living
cellular
matrix
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 36)The
anterior
cruciate
ligament
normally
prevents
hyperextension
of
the
 knee.
 a) True
 b) False

 37)The
brachial
plexus
gives
rise
to
all
of
the
following
nerves
except:
 a) The
axillary
nerve
 b) The
radial
nerve
 c) The
obturator
nerve
 d) The
median
nerve
 e) The
ulnar
nerve
 
 
 38)The
intercostal
nerves
between
the
ribs
arise
from
which
spinal
nerve
 plexus?
 a) Cervical
 b) Brachial
 c) Lumbar
 d) Sacral
 e) None
of
the
Above
 8
 
 39)Damage
to
the

 eye
movement.
 a) Optic
 b) Vagus
 c) Trigeminal
 d) Facial

 e) Abducens
 
 
 
 
nerve
could
result
in
defects
of
 
 
 40)Part
of
the
limbic
system
involved
in
forming
new
memories
is
the:
 a) Hippocampus
 b) Amygdala
 c) Hypothalamus
 d) Pituitary
Gland
 e) None
of
the
Above
 41)
Degeneration
of
the
substantia
nigra
causes
Alzheimer’s
disease.
 a) True
 b) False
 
 
 42)

The
optic
nerve
controls
movements
of
the
eye.
 a) True
 b) False
 43)

Muscarinic
receptors
bind
 a) Epinephrine
 b) Norepinephrine
 c) Acetylcholine
 d) Cholinesterase
 e) Neuropeptides
 
 
 
 44)

Which
of
the
following
does
not
result
from
sympathetic
stimulation?
 a) Dilation
of
the
pupil
 b) Acceleration
of
the
heart
 c) An
increase
in
digestive
secretion
 d) Brochodilation
 e) Piloerection

 45)Stimuli
for
hot
and
cold
are
detected
by
 a) Free
nerve
endings
 b) Proprioceptors
 c) Meissners
corpuscles
 d) Pacinian
corpuscles
 e) Golgi
tendon
organs
 9
 
 
 46)
The
highest
density
of
cone
cells
is
found
in:
 a) The
crista
ampullaris
 b) The
optic
disc
 c) The
fovea
centralis
 d) The
macula
lutea
 e) None
of
the
above
 47)
Which
incorrectly
pairs
a
glial
cell
type
with
an
associated
function?
 a) Astocytes;
formation
of
the
blood‐brain
barrier
 b) Microglia;
performance
of
immune
function
in
the
central
nervous
system
 c) Oligodendrocytes;
formation
of
myelin
sheath
on
axons
in
the
peripheral
 nervous
system
 d) Ependymal
cells;
regulation
of
production
of
cerebrospinal
fluid
 e) Schwann
cells;
formation
of
myelin
sheath
on
axons
in
the
peripheral
 nervous
system
 
 
 48)Other
sensations
that
influence
taste
are:
 a) Smell
 b) Pain
 c) Temperature
 d) Texture
 e) All
of
the
above
 49) a) b) c) d) Olfactory
Receptors
 Can
be
classified
based
on
specific
smell
 Cannot
be
classified
based
on
smells
 Belong
to
less
than
100
different
categories
 None
of
the
above
 a) b) c) d) Photoreceptors
 Are
the
only
type
of
sensory
receptor
in
the
eye
 Sense
and
encode
light
patterns
 Respond
only
to
bright
light
 Respond
only
to
dim
light
 
 50) 
 
 51)

Cones
specifically
respond
to
three
colors
of
light,
these
colors
are:
 a) Red,
yellow
and
green
 b) Green,
yellow
and
blue
 c) Blue,
green
and
red
 d) None
of
the
above
 10
 
 
 52)

Myopia
can
occur:
 a) Because
the
eye
is
to
short
 b) Because
the
eye
is
to
long
 c) Because
the
cornea
or
lens
is
irregularly
shaped
 d) Because
the
retina
becomes
detached
 e) None
of
the
above
 53)Nicotine
easily
crosses
the
blood‐brain
barrier.
 a) True
 b) False
 
 
 
 
 54)

The
cranial
nerve
that
functions
in
olfaction
is:
 a) Cranial
Nerve
I
 b) Cranial
Nerve
VII
 c) Cranial
Nerve
X
 d) Cranial
Nerve
VIII
 55)

The
biceps
brachii
is
innervated
by
the:
 a) Phrenic
nerve
 b) Musculocutaneous
nerve
 c) Radial
Nerve
 d) Femoral
Nerve
 
 
 
 11
 
 Matching
–
Match
the
muscle
to
the
number
on
the
diagrams
(1
point
each)
 56)Gastrocnemius


 
 
 57)Infraspinatus



 
 
 
 58)Triceps
brachii


 
 
 
 59)Biceps
Brachii


 
 
 
 60)Biceps
Femoris

 
 
 
 61)Semitendinosus



 
 62)Gluteus
Maximus


 
 
 63)Rectus
Femoris


 
 
 
 64)Vastus
Medialis


 
 
 
 
 12
 65)The
term
magnus
when
referring
to
a
muscle
name
means

 
 a) Large
 b) Larger
 c) Largest
 d) None
of
the
above
 
 
 
 
 66)
Which
of
these
muscles
is
not
arotator
cuff
muscle?
 a) Teres
minor
 b) Subscapularis
 c) Infraspinatus
 d) Teres
Major
 e) Supraspinatus
 67)
Electromyograph
(EMG)
Recordings
 a) Can
be
measured
within
the
muscle
 b) Can
be
measured
using
superficial
electrodes
 c) Measures
a
muscles
electrical
activity
 d) All
of
the
above
 e) None
of
the
above
 
 68)
During
running
 a) Kinetic
and
potential
energy
are
out
of
phase
 b) There
is
always
one
foot
on
the
ground
 c) Energy
is
stored
in
elastic
tendons
and
then
released
 d) All
of
the
above
 e) None
of
the
above
 
 69)
A
muscle
with
a
large
muscle
moment
arm
will
produce
a
greater
amount
 of
torque
for
a
given
muscle
force
than
a
muscle
with
a
small
moment
 arm.
 a) True
 b) False
 
 
 70)

The
muscles
of
the
neck,
the
atlantooccipital
joint
and
the
weight
of
the
 face
acts
as
a:
 a) First
Class
Lever
 b) Second
Class
Lever
 c) Third
Class
Lever
 71)

The
cross‐sectional
area
of
a
muscle
can
affect
the
muscles
 a) Length
 b) Velocity
 c) Force
 d) None
of
the
above
 
 13
 
 72)
During
a
concentric
contraction
when
velocity
increases
force:
 a) Increase
 b) Decreases
 c) Stays
the
same
 
 73)
An
isotonic
contraction
occurs
at:
 a) A
constant
length
 b) A
constant
force
 c) During
an
incomplete
tetanus
 d) None
of
the
above
 
 74)Fast
glycolytic
fibers
 a) Have
low
glycogen
content
 b) Have
high
myoglobin
content
 c) Have
many
mitochondria
 d) All
of
the
above
 e) None
of
the
above
 
 Match
the
following
definition/structure
with
the
structure
on
the
sarcomere.

A
 label
on
the
sarcomere
can
be
used
more
than
once.
 75)

The
largest
protein
in
the
human
body
 76)

The
site
of
ATP
activity
in
the
sarcomere
 77)

The
site
of
the
regulatory
proteins
 78)

The
structure
that
provides
passive
elasticity
in
muscle
 
 
 
 14
 
 79)On
the
diagram
below,
one
line
represents
active
force
on
the
whole‐ muscle
length
tension
curve
‐‐‐
is
it
the
pink
line
or
the
black
line?
 a) Black
line
is
active
force
 b) Pink
line
is
active
force
 
 80)

The
muscle
force
and
length
curves
below
represent
a
muscle
 contracting.
 a) Isotonically
 b) Eccentrically
 c) Isometrically
 d) None
of
the
above
 
 
 15
 
 
 81)

A
parallel
fibered
muscle
is
designed
for:
 a) Producing
large
amounts
of
force
 b) Producing
small
amounts
of
force
 c) Producing
large
changes
in
length
 d) A
&
C
 e) B
&
C
 Questions
82
–
85
 Match
the
following
names
with
the
lengths
on
the
sarcomere
length
tension
 curve: 82)Shallow
ascending
limb
 83)

Descending
limb
 84)

Plateau
 85)

Steep
Ascending
Limb
 
 a. b. c. d. 
 Point
A

Point
B
 Point
B

Point
C
 Point
C

Point
D
 Point
D

Point
E
 16
 
 For
each
of
the
diseases
listed
below
indicate
the
hormone
that
is
deficient
or
 excessive
and
whether
the
disease
is
hyposecretory
(↓)
or
hypersecretory
(↑).

Each
 question
is
worth
two
points

 86)
Gigantism
 87)
Cretinism
 88)
Diabetes
Mellitus
 89)
Cushings
Syndrome
 90)

Graves
Disease
 c) Insulin
 d) Thyroid
Hormone
 e) Growth
Hormone
 f) ACTH
 g) FSH
 h) Calcitonin
 i) Aldosterone
 j) Cortisol
 
 
 17
 Short
Answer

 
 1) Youare
jogging
up
Mount
Washington
at
noon
and
you
see
a
Black
Bear.

 
 A)
What
sensory
cells/receptors
in
your
eye
are
primarily
responsible
for
 
 detecting
its
image?
(1
point)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 B)
What
nerve
transmits
this
information
to
the
brain?

(1
point)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 C)
What
division
of
the
autonomic
nervous
system
is
likely
to
become

active
 
 upon
detecting
the
bear,
and
what
are
three
effects
of
this
activity?
(4
 
 points)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 2) A)
What
dimensional
measurement
determines
the
maximum
force
of
a
muscle’s
 contraction?
(2
points)
 
 
 
 
 B)
Other
than
muscle
force
what
variable
affects
the
torque
produced
at
the
 joint?
(2
points)
 
 18
 
 
 3) The
diagram
below
depicts
a
skull
with
three
jaw
CLOSING
muscles
(1,2,3)
biting
 a
small
prey
(left)
and
a
large
prey
(right).

Assume
the
muscles
are
equally
large
 and
have
the
same
cross‐sectional
area.
 A.

When
eating
smaller
prey
(left
example),
which
muscle(s)
can
generate
 the
most
bite
force
to
crush
prey?
(2
points)
 
 B.

Describe
how
the
moment
arm
ratio
changes
between
OPEN
and
CLOSED
 jaw
positions
(i.e.

increasing,
decreasing,
or
constant)
for
the
three
muscles
 when
biting
on
the
larger
prey
with
a
wider
gape.
(3
points)


 
 
 C.

Which
muscle
generates
the
most
torque
(moment)
in
the
example
on
the
 right
(the
larger
prey)?

(2
points)
 
 D.

Which
muscle(s)
are
able
to
close
the
jaw
FASTEST
in
both
the
smaller
 gape
(left)
and
larger
gape
(right)
examples?
(1
point)
 
 
 
 19
 4) List
the
three
mechanism
that
regulate
hormone
synthesis
and
release
and
give
 an
example
of
each.
(6
points)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 5) Label
the
structures
on
the
diagram
of
the
ear.

Use
the
letters
associated
with
 each
structure.

DO
NOT
USE
THE
WORDS
IT
WILL
NOT
BE
GRADED!
(5.5
 points)
 A) Incus
 G) Malleus
 B) Outer
Ear
 H) Ear
Canal
 C) External
Ear
Canal
 I) Middle
Ear
 D) Cochlea
 J) Pinna
 E) Tympanic
Membrane
 K) Stapes
 F) Vestibule
 
 
 
 20
 6) List
the
regions/zones
of
the
growth
plate,
starting
at
the
epiphysis
and
going
 towards
the
diaphysis.
(2.
5
points).

Next
to
your
list
of
regions/zones
draw
an
 arrow
showing
the
direction
of
cartilage
growth.
(1
point)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 7) List
four
hormones
released
by
the
hypothalamus,
what
hormones
they
 stimulate
the
release
of
(if
any)
and
from
what
organ
those
hormones
are
 released
from.

Finally
give
a
one
sentence
summary
of
the
function
of
the
 hormone
that
is
released
as
the
end
product
of
the
stimulus.

(Example
(you
 cannot
use
this):
GnRH
(gonadotropin
releasing
hormone,
stimulates
the
 release
of
FSH
(follicle
stimulating
hormone)
from
the
anterior
pituitary.

 FSH
stimulates
follicle
growth
in
the
ovary.
(8
points)
 
 21
 8) Draw
a
force‐velocity
curve
for
whole
muscle
during
concentric
contraction
(2
 points).

To
this
graph
add
the
curve
for
power
versus
velocity

(2
points).

 Indicate
on
the
graph
where
the
muscle
is
isometric
(1
point)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 9) Draw
a
graph
of
the
changes
in
kinetic
and
potential
energy
over
the
course
of
a
 stride.

(3
points)

What
mechanism
do
humans
use
to
save
energy
during
 walking
and
about
how
much
energy
is
saved.
(1
point)
 
 22
 Extra
Credit
(5
points)
 
 Fill
in
the
table
below.
 
 Muscle
Name
 Insertion
 Origin
 Action
 Gastrocnemius
 
 
 
 Vastus
Lateralis
 
 
 
 Gluteus
Maximus
 
 
 
 Biceps
Brachii
 
 
 
 Supraspinatus
 
 
 
 
 
 23
 ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online