Psyc317 Lec 15 Notes

Psyc317 Lec 15 Notes - ← Psyc317 Lec 15 Notes:...

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Unformatted text preview: ← Psyc317 Lec 15 Notes: Categorization 24/10/2007 13:18:00 Intuitive vs. Culturally constructed • Alternative reasons for universality in adults o Adult universality is indicative of what is intuitive Children universally categorize similarly and like adults o Adult universality is indicative of common cultural construction Children universally categorize differently from adults o Moreover, Adult diversity leaves undetermined what is intuitive Children universally might categorize similarly, but some change during development ← Infant’s classification • Finding: 9 month olds discriminate based on animacy, not color • Pay more attention to animals vs. cars ← ← Children’s classification across cultures • Stross study on Tzeltal children o 209 plant trail task o Typical development: 2s – names of plant products, and generic species 2.5s – names of life-forms, 30 names 4s – over 100 names, know uses of plants 6s – knows names for culturally non-significant plants o Dougherty comparison of Tzelatal to Americans Tzeltal and American children start with the same basic distinction: plant, tree, and flower The two groups, however, differ in the rate and extend of further lumping and subdivisions American 4-year-olds have about 20 names for plants Tzletal have over 100 ← ← how do children conceive of categories? • Psychological essentialism o Categories have certain properties that define what the category is (People across the world believe that different categories cannot be put together / mixed) Number of psychological consequences Causal power • DNA of a tiger will look like a tiger All members of the category have the same essence Inductive power Essences are inherent Innate potential Essences are stable Resistant to change ← Children’s essentialist beliefs about animals across culture • In the West o Animal categories as bases for inferences: “seen one pig, seen them all” o Animal category membership is inherited: “pigs are born, they aren’t made”) o Animal categories are stable and resistant to change: “once a pig, always a pig” ……. Infants’ inferences 1 o Gave something to a child, like if you squeeze it, it makes a noise Given other 3 objects, none of them made that noise Will instants be persistent in trying to make the other objects make the same noise?...
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course PSYC 317 taught by Professor Gildiesendruck during the Fall '07 term at Yale.

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Psyc317 Lec 15 Notes - ← Psyc317 Lec 15 Notes:...

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