Final Exam

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 ID
Number:
 
 Bio
E‐65C
 Final
Exam
 Harvard
University
 Multiple
Choice
(1
point
each)
 1) An
increase
in
the
size
of
a
body
part
or
the
organism
is
 a. Usually
accomplished
by
increasing
the
number
of
cells
 b. Can
be
caused
by
an
increase
in
the
size
of
cells
 c. Occurs
because
constructive
activities
occur
at
a
faster
rate
than
 destructive
ones
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 2) Negative
feedback
 a. Output
increases
the
original
stimulus
 b. Output
shuts
off
or
decreases
the
original
stimulus
 c. Is
exemplified
by
enhancement
of
labor
contractions
by
oxytocin
at
 birth
 d. None
of
the
above
 
 
 3) Lipids
 a. Contain
carbon,
hydrogen
and
oxygen
in
a
1:2:1
ratio
 b. Form
essential
cellular
components
and
energy
reserves
 c. Include
fatty
acids
and
eicosanoids
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 f. A
&
B
 g. B
&
C
 4) The
primary
structure
of
a
protein
 a. Is
an
alpha
helix
 b. Is
represented
by
a
globular
molecule
 c. Is
the
chain
and
sequence
of
amino
acids
in
the
protein
 d. None
of
the
above
 
 5) Desmosomes
 a. Acts
to
distribute
tension
throughout
the
sheets
of
cells
to
prevent
 tearing
 b. Form
an
impermeable
junction
that
encircles
the
cell
 c. Prevent
molecules
from
passing
through
the
extracellular
matrix
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 
 
 1
 Name:
 
 ID
Number:
 
 6) The
three
varieties
of
cartilage
are:
 a. Dense,
hyaline
and
elastic
 b. White,
brown
and
clear
 c. Hyaline,
elastic
and
fibrocartilage
 d. Dense,
irregular
and
adipose
 
 7) Tissue
repair
 a. Occurs
in
only
one
way
 b. Can
lead
to
destroyed
tissue
being
replaced
with
the
same
kind
of
 tissue
or
fibrous
connective
tissue
 c. Occurs
at
the
same
rate
in
all
tissues
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 8) Muscle
cells

 a. Are
specialized
to
initiate
and
conduct
electrical
signals
across
long
 distances
 b. Connect,
anchor
and
support
the
structures
of
the
body
 c. Are
specialized
to
generate
the
mechanical
forces
that
produce
force
 and
movement
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 9) Factors
that
influence
the
rate
of
chemical
reactions
include
 a. Temperature
 b. Catalysts
 c. Concentrations
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 10)Selective
permeability
restricts
materials
based
on:
 a. Size
 b. Electrical
Charge
 c. Molecular
Shape
 d. Lipid
Solubility
 e. All
of
the
Above
 11)Simple
Diffusion
 a. Is
an
active
process
 b. Occurs
in
vesicles
 c. Is
the
movement
of
substances
from
an
area
of
low
concentration
to
 an
area
of
high
concentration
 d. Requires
ATP
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 
 2
 Name:
 
 ID
Number:
 
 12)

The
skin
functions

 a. As
a
physical
and
mechanical
barrier
 b. In
cutaneous
sensation

 c. In
body
temperature
regulation
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 13)

Burns
 a. Have
four
classifications
 b. Leave
a
body
susceptible
to
infection
 c. If
serious
can
require
thousands
of
extra
calories
to
heal
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 14)

Postnatal
bone
growth
that
increase
the
length
of
bones
 a. Occurs
by
endochondral
ossification
 b. Occurs
by
appositional
growth
 c. End
when
the
epiphysis
and
diaphysis
fuses
 d. A
&
B
 e. B
&
C
 f. A
&
C
 
 15)

Glial
cells
of
the
neural
tissue:
 a. are
more
abundant
than
neurons
 b. respond
to
infection
 c. help
myelinate
CNS
axons
 d. help
regulate
the
neuronal
environment
 e. all
of
the
above
 
 16)

Neurotransmitters
are
removed
from
the
synaptic
cleft
by:
 a. reuptake
into
the
presynaptic
neuron
 b. enzymatic
transformation
into

an
inactive
substance
 c. diffusion
away
from
the
receptor
site
and
the
synaptic
cleft
 d. all
of
the
above
 e. A
&
B
only
 
 17)

An
IPSP
(Inhibitory
Postsynaptic
Potential)
 a. can
result
from
the
opening
of
potassium
ion
channels
 b. can
result
from
the
opening
of
chloride
ion
channels
 c. increases
the
membrane
potential
towards
threshold
 d. A
&
B
 e. A
&
C
 f. B
&
C
 
 
 
 
 3
 Name:
 
 
 ID
Number:
 
 18)Saltatory
Conduction
 a. Occurs
only
in
myelinated
axons
 b. Occurs
in
all
axons
 c. Allows
action
potentials
to
travel
more
quickly
down
an
axon
 d. A
&
B
 e. A
&
C
 f. B
&
C
 19)

A
diarthrosis
is:
 a. A
freely
moveable
joint
 b. A
slightly
moveable
joint
 c. A
immovable
joint
 
 20)

The
elbow
joint
 a. Consists
of
a
single
joint
capsule
enclosing
two
joints
 b. Includes
the
humeroulnar
joint
 c. 
Includes
the
humeroradial
joint
 d. A
&
C
 e. All
of
the
above
 
 
 21)

The
muscles
of
the
rotator
cuff
include:
 a. The
teres
minor
 b. The
teres
major
 c. The
triceps
brachii
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 22)

The
flexor
and
crossed
extensor
reflex
is
 a. Initiated
by
a
painful
stimulus
 b. Has
two
parts
 c. Begins
with
the
automatic
withdrawal
of
a
threatened
body
part
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 23)

The
reflex
that
when
stimulated
causes
bradycardia,
peripheral
 vasoconstriction
and
a
blood
shift
is:
 a. The
mammalian
diving
reflex
 b. A
yawn
 c. A
photic
sneeze
reflex
 d. None
of
the
above
 
 
 
 
 
 4
 Name:
 
 ID
Number:
 
 24)

The
cerebellum
 a. Calculates
the
best
way
to
perform
a
movement
 b. Plays
a
role
in
language
and
problem
solving
 c. Recognizes
and
predicts
sequences
of
events
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 
 
 25)

The
left
hemisphere
of
the
cerebrum
is
 a. Associated
with
linear
reasoning
 b. Connected
to
the
right
hemisphere
via
the
corpus
callosum
 c. Associated
with
facial
perception
 d. A
&
B
 e. A
&
C
 f. All
of
the
above
 26) The
only
cranial
nerve
necessary
for
life
is
:
 a. Cranial
Nerve
I
 b. Cranial
Nerve
VII
 c. Cranial
Nerve
X
 d. Cranial
Nerve
VIII
 27) The
ventral
rami
of
the
spinal
nerves
 a. Are
arranged
in
a
segmental
pattern
 b. Form
the
intercostal
nerves
 c. Have
cutaneous
brances
to
the
skin
 d. All
of
the
above
 
 28) The
following
is
a
nerve
off
of
the
cervical
plexus
 a. Phrenic
nerve
 b. Musculocutaneous
nerve
 c. Ulnar
nerve
 d. Median
nerve
 
 
 
 
 
 29) The
triceps
brachii
is
innervated
by
the:
 a. Median
nerve
 b. Ulnar
Nerve
 c. Musculocutaneous
Nerve
 d. Radial
Nerve
 30) The
skin
over
the
anterior
surface
of
the
knee
is
innervated
by
the:
 a. Sciatic
Nerve
 b. Femoral
Nerve
 c. Obturator
Nerve
 d. Tibial
Nerve
 5
 Name:
 
 ID
Number:
 
 31) The
sense
of
taste
that
responds
to
metal
ions
is:
 a. Sweet
 b. Salt
 c. Sour
 d. Fat
 32) The
sense
of
taste
that
guides
our
intake
of
protein
is:
 a. Sweet
 b. Salt
 c. Umani
 d. Fat
 33) Other
sensations
that
influence
taste
are:
 a. Smell
 b. Pain
 c. Temperature
 d. Texture
 e. All
of
the
above
 
 34) Olfactory
Receptors
 a. Can
be
classified
based
on
specific
smell
 b. Cannot
be
classified
based
on
smells
 c. Belong
to
less
than
a
100
different
categories
 d. None
of
the
above
 
 
 35) Photoreceptors
 a. Are
the
only
type
of
sensory
receptor
in
the
eye
 b. Sense
and
encode
light
patterns
 c. Respond
only
to
bright
light
 d. Respond
only
to
dim
light
 36)Hormones
can:
 a. Alter
plasma
membrane
permeability
 b. Can
activate
or
deactivate
enzyme
systems
 c. Can
stimulate
mitosis
 d. Can
stimulate
protein
synthesis
 e. All
of
the
above
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 37) Target
cell
activation
by
hormones
depends
on:
 a. The
blood
levels
of
the
hormone
 b. The
relative
number
of
receptors
on
the
target
cell
 c. The
affinity
of
receptors
for
the
hormone
 d. All
of
the
above
 6
 Name:
 
 ID
Number:
 
 38) When
a
hormone
is
activated
permissively
 a. 

It
amplifies
the
effect
of
the
target
cell
 b. It
opposes
the
action
of
another
 c. It
can
only
exert
its
full
effects
if
another
hormone
is
present
 d. All
of
the
above
 
 39) Parathyroid
hormone
is
released
in
response
to

 a. Neural
stimuli
 b. Humoral
stimuli

 c. Hormonal
stimuli
 d. None
of
the
above
 
 
 
 40) ADH
 a. Is
released
from
the
anterior
pituitary
 b. Is
synthesized
in
the
posterior
pituitary
 c. Is
synthesized
in
the
hypothalamus
 d. None
of
the
above
 41) Cones
specifically
respond
to
three
colors
of
light,
these
colors
are:
 a. Red,
yellow
and
green
 b. Green,
yellow
and
blue
 c. Blue,
green
and
red
 d. None
of
the
above
 
 42) The
semicircular
canals
allow
you
to
sense
movement
in
three
planes
 including
 a. Roll,
pitch
and
yaw
 b. Roll,
spin
and
pitch
 c. Yaw,
spin
and
roll
 d. None
of
the
above
 
 
 43) An
astigmatism
occurs
because:
 a. The
eye
is
to
long
 b. The
eye
is
to
short
 c. The
cornea
or
lens
is
irregularly
shaped
 d. The
retina
becomes
detached
 e. None
of
the
above

 44) Acromegaly
occurs
because
of
:
 a. To
much
growth
hormone
prior
to
puberty
 b. To
much
growth
hormone
as
an
adult
 c. Not
enough
growth
hormone
as
an
adult
 d. Not
enough
growth
hormone
prior
to
puberty
 
 
 
 
 7
 Name:
 
 ID
Number:
 
 45) The
zona
glomerulosa
of
the
adrenal
cortex
secretes
 a. Cortisol
 b. Aldosterone
 c. Androgens
 d. Epinephrine
 
 46) Polydipsia
is:
 a. A
symptom
of
diabetes
mellitus
 b. Defined
as
excessive
thirst
 c. Is
caused
dehydration
that
occurs
due
to
excess
glucose
being
 excreted
by
the
kidneys
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 
 
 47) The
pineal
gland
 a. Secretes
melatonin
 b. Is
more
active
during
the
day
than
at
night
 c. Is
more
active
during
the
night
than
during
the
day
 d. A
&
B
 e. A
&
C
 48) ACTH
is
a
hormone:
 a. Whose
release
is
stimulated
by
a
hormone
produced
in
the
 hypothalamus
 b. That
acts
via
a
cyclicAMP
second
messenger
system
 c. That
is
released
from
the
anterior
pituitary
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 49) Hormones
are
removed
from
the
blood
by:
 a. Degrading
enzymes
 b. The
action
of
the
kidneys
 c. The
action
of
the
liver
 d. All
of
the
above
 e. None
of
the
above
 
 50) Glaucoma:
 a. Occurs
if
drainage
of
the
vitreous
humor
is
blocked
 b. Can
lead
to
permanent
blindness
 c. Has
symptoms
that
include
light
halos
and
headaches
 d. A
&
B
 e. B
&
C
 f. All
of
the
above
 
 
 8
 Name:
 
 ID
Number:
 
 
 Short
Answer
Questions
 1) Fill
in
the
following
table
with
the
appropriate
cranial
nerve
name
and
function.
 (6
points)
 
 Cranial
Nerve
 Cranial
Nerve
Name
 Cranial
Nerve
Function
 Number
 III
 
 II
 
 
 VI
 
 
 VII
 
 
 I
 
 
 IV
 
 
 V
 
 
 VIII
 
 
 IX
 
 
 XI
 
 
 X
 
 
 XII
 
 
 
 
 9
 Name:
 
 
 
 ID
Number:
 
 2) What
will
happen
to
the
cell
volume
if
a
cell
is
placed
in
each
of
the
solutions
 listed
in
the
table
below.

Assume
that
sodium
chloride
(NaCl)
cannot
cross
 the
cell
membrane
while
urea
can
freely
cross
the
cell
membrane.

The
 concentration
of
solutes
that
cannot
cross
the
cell
membrane
inside
the
cell
 is
300
mOsm
prior
to
the
cells
being
put
into
solution.

Indicate
in
the
fourth
 column
whether
the
cells
volume
will
increase,
decrease
or
stay
the
same.
(2
 points)
 Solution
 A
 Concentration
mM
 Sodium
Chloride
 Urea
 (NaCl)
 150
 100
 
 Cell
Volume
 
 B
 
 200
 100
 
 D
 
 150
 C
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 100
 100
 50
 
 Characterize
each
of
the
solutions
above
as
isotonic,
hypertonic
or
hypotonic.
 (2
points)
 3) Diagram
the
path
of
sound
from
the
external
environment
to
the
Organ
of
 Corti.

Include
all
relevant
structures
that
conduct
sound.
(4
points)
 10
 Name:
 
 ID
Number:
 
 4) Draw
a
graph
of
a
cell’s
membrane
potential
(mV)
versus
time
(ms)
during
 an
action
potential.
(1
point)

On
the
graph
label
the
following
phases
of
the
 action
potential
hyperpolarization,
depolarization
and
repolarization.

(1.5
 points)

Finally
on
your
graph
label
where
sodium
channels
open,
where
 sodium
channels
close
and
where
potassium
channels
open
(1.5
points)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 5) Fill
in
the
blanks
on
the
following
table
with
the
correct
hormone(s),
the
 name
of
the
disease
or
whether
it
is
a
hypersecretory
disease
or
a
 hyposecretory
disease.
(6
points)
 
 Disease
Name
 Hormone
Name
 Diabetes
Mellitus
 Insulin
 Hypersecretory
or
 Hyposecretory
 Hyposecretion
 Gigantism
 
 
 
 Thyroid
Hormone
 Hyposecretion
as
a
child/infant
 
 Cortisol
 Hypersecretion
 Addisons
Disease
 
 
 Congenital
Adrenal
 Hyperplasia
 Diabetes
Insipidus
 
 
 
 Hypersecretion
 
 Growth
Hormone
 Hyposecretion
prepuberty
 Graves
Disease
 
 
 
 
 
 11
 Name:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ID
Number:
 
 6) A)
If
your
brain
activity
is
being
measured
using
an
fMRI
scan
while
you
are
 trying
to
answer
your
exam
questions,
which
brain
area
would
most
likely
 show
the
highest
activity
while
you
are
retrieving
answers
from
your
long
 term
memory
storage
(1
pt)?

 
 B)
As
you
realize
that
you
cannot
recall
the
answer
to
the
question,
your
 pulse
starts
racing.
What
division
of
your
nervous
system
is
responsible
 for
this
increase
in
heart
rate
(1
pts)?

 
 
 
 
 
 C)
You
suddenly
get
a
strong
sense
of
hunger
while
you
are
attempting
to
 beat
the
clock
and
answer
the
exam
question.
What
endocrine
signal
in
your
 body
is
causing
this
sense
of
hunger
in
response
to
the
stress
that
you
are
 experiencing
(1
pts)?


 
 
 
 
 
 D)
You
experience
a
sense
of
anger
for
the
stress
and
sense
of
hunger
the
 question
has
caused
you.
Which
brain
area
is
now
lighting
up
in
the
fMRI
 scan
due
to
this
anger
(1
pts)?

 
 
 
 
 
 E)
As
you
finally
recall
the
correct
answer,
you
feel
a
sense
of
reward
and
you
 move
on
to
the
next
question.
What
category
of
the
nervous
system
is
 responsible
for
the
reward,
memory,
fear,
and
increased
heart
rate
you
 experienced
(1
pts)?

 
 
 
 
 
 
 12
 Name:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ID
Number:
 
 7) Carbohydrate
(e.g.
glucose)
is
the
primary
starting
material
for
the
 production
of
ATP,
the
universal
energy
currency
for
the
majority
of
cellular
 processes.
What
are
the
three
main
steps
in
carbohydrate
metabolism
that
 are
common
to
all
eukaryotic
cells?

(3
points)
 What
are
the
two
major
end
products
of
anaerobic
metabolism?
(2
points)
 8) A
patient
has
suffered
severe
neck
trauma
and
now
shows
a
variety
of
 symptoms
including
hoarseness,
irregular
(in
particular,
unusually
fast)
 heartbeat,
problems
with
digestive
secretion,
and
constipation.

 
 
 A)
What
division
of
the
autonomic
nervous
system
has
been
damaged,
and
 how
do
you
know
from
the
symptoms?
(2
points)
 
 
 
 
 
 B)
Specifically,
which
nerve
has
sustained
damage
and
how
do
you
know?

(2
 points)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 C)
Would
localized
trauma
(to
a
small
area)
produce
such
a
wide
range
of
 symptoms
if
the
other
division
of
the
autonomic
nervous
system
were
 damaged?

Why?
(2
points)
 
 
 
 
 13
 Name:
 
 ID
Number:
 
 9) There
are
six
classes
of
synovial
joints
that
we
discussed
in
class,
list
four
of
 these
classes
of
joints
and
give
brief
description
of
each
class
that
you
list.
(4
 points)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 10) Draw
the
following
types
of
epithelium
and
list
one
place
where
it
is
found
 in
the
body,
stratified
squamous
epithelium,
simple
cuboidal
epithelium,
 pseudostratified
ciliated
columnar
epithelium.
(3
points)
 
 
 14
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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