Special Senses

Special Senses - Special Senses Special Senses Introduction...

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Special Senses
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Special Senses Introduction Touch Chemical Senses – Taste – Smell Vision Hearing & Balance
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Sensory Receptors & Sensation • Sense Organs • Sensation • Perception
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Classification by Stimulus Mechanoreceptors Thermoreceptors Photoreceptors Chemoreceptors Nociceptors
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Receptor Class by Location: Exteroceptors • Respond to stimuli arising outside the body • Sensitive to touch, pressure, pain, and temperature • Includes the special sense organs
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Receptor Class by Location: Interoceptors • Respond to stimuli arising within the body • Sensitive to chemical changes, stretch, and temperature changes
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Receptor Class by Location: Proprioceptors • Respond to degree of stretch of the organs they occupy • Monitor how much organs containing these receptors are stretched
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Receptor Classification by Structure • Receptors are structurally classified as either simple or complex • Most receptors are simple and include encapsulated and unencapsulated varieties • Complex receptors are special sense organs
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Simple Receptors: Unencapsulated • Free dendritic nerve endings • Merkel discs • Root hair plexuses • Itch Receptors
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Simple Receptors: Encapsulated Consist of one or more fiber terminals of sensory neurons enclosed in a connective tissue capsule Virtually all are mechanoreceptors Meissner’s corpuscles
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Simple Receptors: Encapsulated – Pacinian corpuscles – Ruffini’s corpuscles
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Simple Receptors: Encapsulated – Muscle spindles » Fusiform (spindle shaped) propriceptors found within skeletal muscles
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Simple Receptors: Encapsulated – Golgi tendon organs » Proprioceptors located in tendons, close to the skeletal muscle insertion – Joint kinesthetic receptors » Proprioceptors that monitor stretch in the articular capsules the enclose synovial joints
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Simple Receptors: Unencapsulated Table 13.1, part 1
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Simple Receptors: Encapsulated Table 13.1, part 2
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Simple Receptors: Encapsulated Table 13.1, part 3
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Simple Receptors: Encapsulated Table 13.1, part 4
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Chemical Senses • Chemical senses • Their chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution – Taste – Smell
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Taste Buds • The 10,000 or so taste buds are mostly found on the tongue • Found in papillae of the tongue mucosa • Papillae come in three types: filiform, fungiform, and circumvallate • Fungiform and circumvallate papillae contain taste buds
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Taste Buds Figure 16.1a-c
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Taste Sensations • There are six basic taste sensations – Sweet – Salt – Sour – Bitter – Umami – Fat
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Physiology of Taste • In order to be tasted, a chemical: – Must be dissolved in saliva – Contact gustatory hairs • Binding of the food chemical: – Depolarizes the taste cell membrane – Causes a generator potential Action Potential
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on Taste • Taste is 80% smell • Thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, nociceptors also influence tastes • Temperature and texture enhance or detract from taste
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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Special Senses - Special Senses Special Senses Introduction...

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