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55 CHAPTER 14: THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES Chapter Overview Introduction Chapter 14 discusses the development, anatomy, and major functions of the brain and cranial nerves. The human brain is the most complex biological structure known to science so the author provides considerable aid by identifying major regions and by discussing their development. Saladin illuminates the functions of the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid. Each major section next receives an anatomical summary with much attention to the brain stem, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. The author examines major higher cerebral functions such as sleep, language, and memory. Finally, the cranial nerves are given special consideration. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: locations of major landmarks in the central nervous system; embryonic development; cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-brain barrier; configuration and major functions of the medulla oblongata; structures and roles of significant portions of the pons and cerebellum; actions and appearance of the constituent parts of the midbrain; activities and conformation of the diencephalon with emphasis on the activities of the thalamus and hypothalamus; functions of the reticular formation; histology and the significant tracts and regions of the cerebral medulla with special attention to the basal nuclei; the limbic system; activities of the cerebellum; the lobes of the cerebral cortex and major association centers (including the speech centers); the significance of brain waves and functions of sleep; the structures related to motor control and somatic sensation; cognition and emotions; cerebral lateralization; short-term, long-term, declarative, and procedural memory; major disorders related to the brain and cranial nerves; and the pathways and functions of the cranial nerves. Topics for Discussion 1. Obtain PET, fMRI, or other scans of normal and abnormal brains and get the students to predict the appearance of abnormal brains by first just looking at the normal ones. If you know a neurosurgeon in your area, you might be able to get scans from that physician. As you know, it will be important to cover or remove the patient’s identity from the material before sharing it with the class. 2. Have the students predict the behavior of people with certain parts of the brain damaged by an accident or gunshot. 3. Research has shown that pleasant odors, especially menthol, will help people to remember what they are studying and recall those things later on. Sexual associations with mnemonics also are more easily remembered than other memory tricks. These two facts underline the functional relationships between parts of the limbic system, olfactory association centers, and memory. 4.
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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