chapt12im - CHAPTER 12 NERVOUS TISSUE Chapter Overview...

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49 CHAPTER 12: NERVOUS TISSUE Chapter Overview Introduction Chapter 12 begins with a general description of the nervous system and briefly compares it with the endocrine system. There are two main types of nerve cells: neurons and neuroglia cells, the former using waves of electrostatic charge changes (i.e., polarization and depolarization) as the method of message transmission in a single cell. Neuroglia cells have a variety of functions relating to the support, supply, and defense of the neurons. The chapter also details the functional classes of neurons. Chapter 11 has already provided an excellent background in electrophysiology, and this chapter extends and enlarges upon those concepts. The synapse is the gap present between a neuron and another cell. This gap is jumped by neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are a functional class of more than 100 chemicals that when released most commonly by the presynaptic neuron will cause a change in the electrophysiology of the postsynaptic cell (excitation, inhibition, or modulation may result). Neurotransmitters make neural integration possible. An understanding of the way neurons work is important to the clarification of many disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: an overall view of the major portions of the nervous systems: central nervous system including brain and spinal nerve cord and the peripheral nervous system including the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; types and functions of neuroglia cells including myelination; types, structural features, and functions of the major types of neurons; modes of transportation within the neuron and regeneration of the axon; electrophysiology of neurons especially resting, local, and action potentials; concepts related to nerve message conduction including action potential, local potentials, threshold, refractory period, saltatory, and nondecremental impulses; the events of the synapse and the discovery and role of neurotransmitters; the means of and the importance of signal cessation; neural integration and the ways nerve cells work together: summation, facilitation, coding, potentiation, neuronal pools and circuits; memory and synaptic plasticity; and the characterization and possible causes of Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinsonism. Topics for Discussion
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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chapt12im - CHAPTER 12 NERVOUS TISSUE Chapter Overview...

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