ch14_Summary_Saladin3e - Saladin, Human Anatomy 3e Detailed...

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Saladin, Human Anatomy 3e Detailed Chapter Summary Chapter 14, The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 14.1 The Spinal Cord (p. 372) 1. The spinal cord conducts signals up and down the body, contains central pattern generators that control locomotion, and mediates many reflexes. 2. The spinal cord occupies the vertebral canal from vertebrae C1 to L1, where it tapers off to a point called the medullary cone . A bundle of nerve roots called the cauda equina occupies the rest of the canal from L2 to S5. 3. The cord is divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions, named for the levels of the vertebral column through which the spinal nerves emerge. The portion served by each spinal nerve is called a segment of the cord. 4. Cervical and lumbar enlargements are wide points in the cord marking the emergence of nerves that control the limbs. 5. The spinal cord is enclosed in three fibrous membranes, the meninges . From superficial to deep, these are the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater . In the vertebral canal, the dura mater forms a loose sleeve around the spinal cord called the dural sheath. 6. The pia mater issues periodic denticulate ligaments that anchor it to the dura, and continues inferiorly as a coccygeal ligament that anchors the cord to the coccyx. 7. An epidural space exists between the dura mater and vertebral bone, and a subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater. Inferior to the medullary cone, the subarachnoid space continues as the lumbar cistern . The subarachnoid space and cistern are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. 8. In cross section, the spinal cord exhibits a central H -shaped core of gray matter surrounded by white matter. The gray matter contains the somas, dendrites, and synapses, whereas the white matter consists of nerve fibers (axons). 9.
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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ch14_Summary_Saladin3e - Saladin, Human Anatomy 3e Detailed...

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