Central Nervous System

Central Nervous System - Central Nervous System Central...

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Central Nervous System
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Central Nervous System Information Transfer Basic Pattern Spinal Cord Brain
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Central Nervous System – Information Transfer • Info can pass through the CNS via – Long neural pathways – Multsynaptic pathways
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Basic Pattern of the Central Nervous System Figure 12.5
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Central Nervous System – Spinal Cord
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Reflexes • A reflex is a rapid, predictable motor response to a stimulus • Reflexes may: – Be inborn or learned (acquired) – Involve only peripheral nerves and the spinal cord – Involve higher brain centers as well
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Reflex Arc Figure 13.12
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Reflex Classification • Classified Functionally • Somatic Reflexes • Autonomic reflexes
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Reflexes in Adult Humans Accommodation reflex Achilles reflex Biceps stretch reflex Brachioradialis reflex Corneal reflex (also known as the blink reflex) Crossed extensor reflex Gag reflex Mammalian diving reflex Patellar reflex (knee-jerk reflex) Photic sneeze reflex Plantar reflex (Babinski reflex) Pupillary reflex Quadriceps reflex Salivation Scratch reflex Sneeze Tendon reflex Triceps stretch reflex Vestibulo-ocular reflex Withdrawal reflex Yawn
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Flexor and Crossed Extensor Reflexes • The flexor reflex is initiated by a painful stimulus (actual or perceived) that causes automatic withdrawal of the threatened body part • The crossed extensor reflex has two parts – The stimulated side is withdrawn – The contralateral side is extended
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Crossed Extensor Reflex Figure 13.17
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Mammalian Diving Reflex Submerging the face into water causes the mammalian diving reflex Includes three factors: Bradycardia Peripheral vasoconstriction Blood shift When the face is submerged, receptors that are sensitive to water within the nasal
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Central Nervous System - Central Nervous System Central...

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