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chapt26im - CHAPTER 26: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM Chapter...

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101 CHAPTER 26: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM Chapter Overview Introduction The human body requires nutrients for energy for maintaining old structures and for building new structures. This chapter is primarily concerned with energy-yielding catabolic processes and related activities. The central reactions are those that take in carbohydrates and lipids and give off useful energy in the ATP bonds. Inasmuch as humans are endothermic, we require large amounts of this bound energy, which we obtain largely through aerobic metabolism. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: the processes governing appetite and body weight; the functions of each of the major classes of nutrients, the amounts required for health, and some important sources of each; carbohydrate requirements, glycemic index, and sources; the importance of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber; the means of lipid transport through the body; protein quality: essential and nonessential amino acids; vitamins and their sources as well as a brief understanding of toxic overdoses of certain vitamins; aspects of cellular respiration mechanisms resulting in the catabolism of glucose: glycolysis-producing pyruvic acid; anaerobic fermentation and lactic acid; aerobic respiration especially the events within the mitochondria; roles of key coenzymes: NAD and FAD; ATP production; production and breakdown of glycogen; activities of the liver; oxidation of lipids and amino acids; deamination, amination, transamination, and protein synthesis; factors that affect metabolic rate: absorptive and postabsorptive states; nervous control; endocrine regulation; total metabolic and basal metabolic rates; physical and mental activity; importance, regulation, and maintenance of body temperature homeostasis; factors upsetting body temperature homeostasis; and the effects of alcohol on the body. Topics for Discussion 1. Diabetes mellitus type II (DMII) and obesity are closely related. Some students may also be interested in running down the incidence of diabetes mellitus type II in certain ethnic groups. Additionally, there is an associated genetically related condition called insulin insensitivity (the older terms are metabolic syndrome or syndrome X) predisposes one to DMII as well as an ensemble of unpleasant conditions such as hypertension, heart disease, and strokes. Insulin insensitivity is not rare: around 40 million Americans are estimated to have it. On the other hand, it can usually be controlled through medication, diet, and exercise.
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102 2. Lactose intolerance makes it harder to supply some people with sufficient calcium for their daily needs. Many dairy products have a lower lactose concentration (most cheeses and yoghurt) so that, with a bit of thought, the problem might be sidestepped. In addition, cruciferous vegetables, especially
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chapt26im - CHAPTER 26: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM Chapter...

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