chapt25im - CHAPTER 25: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Chapter...

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97 CHAPTER 25: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Chapter Overview Introduction Digestion has two paramount functions: releasing nutrients from the food and absorbing those nutrients. Beyond the challenge of finding suitable food, there are several problems that arise from these roles. Digestive juices capable of breaking food down into its component nutrients must be quite powerful so the digestive system must have protection from these chemicals to avoid autodigestion. The digestive juices must be released at appropriate times and in adequate amounts to provide for proper food breakdown. Nutrient absorption must also be efficient in order to supply adequate resources for the human body. Thus, large absorptive surface areas are required. Finally, the indigestible remnants of the food must be eliminated. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: major functions and processes of the digestive system; gross morphology of the alimentary canal and its placement within the body; control over digestive processes; stages of digestion; the path that an ingested particle follows from mouth to anus; functions and make-up of saliva as well as the control of salivation; the processes and control of mastication and swallowing; the structures and functions of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth (including types of teeth), and salivary glands; compare and contrast the histology of the organs of the digestive system including the major layers; structure and function of the esophagus; gross and microscopic anatomy as well as the innervation and circulation of the stomach; chemistry and the tasks performed by gastric secretions; initiation and importance of gastric motility; processes and stimulation of vomiting; the means by which the stomach is protected from self-digestion; cephalic, gastric, and intestinal phases of control of gastric secretions; histology and morphology of the gallbladder, liver and pancreas; the synthesis and functions of bile; major pancreatic enzymes and their activation and specific substrates; control of pancreatic secretions; gross and microscopic anatomy of the small and large intestine; functions and methods of intestinal motility; chemical digestion of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids including the functions of the specific enzymes; absorptive mechanisms of monosaccharides, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water; the significance of the flora of the large intestine; the regulation of defecation; and an understanding of early research on the role of the stomach in digestion.
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98 Topics for Discussion 1. There are several Internet sites dedicated to ulcers and Helicobacter pyri . As Saladin says in this chapter, most ulcers worldwide are caused by this bacterium. Have one of the students look up this research. The idea that most ulcers might have a bacterial origin was difficult for the medical
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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chapt25im - CHAPTER 25: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Chapter...

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