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chapt23im - CHAPTER 23 THE URINARY SYSTEM Chapter Overview...

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90 CHAPTER 23: THE URINARY SYSTEM Chapter Overview Introduction The body exists in potentially hostile physical conditions, the environmental variables rarely matching the normal range of the body. Cellular respiration and other metabolic processes also will produce byproducts that may, if uncontrolled, induce an unhealthy internal milieu. Toxic materials may enter the body and must be eliminated. Clearly, in order for life to continue, means must exist within the body to eliminate these factors, and the urinary system is that means. Urine formation consists of glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion, and water conservation. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: general functions of the urinary system including osmoregulation, elimination of nitrogenous wastes, endocrine functions, maintenance of pH, and voiding; the origin and nature of nitrogenous wastes; gross morphology, microstructure, and circulation of the kidneys; the route of a water molecule from the blood stream through the urinary system to the outside world; glomerular filtration, including the role of the filtration membrane and filtration pressure; the controlling mechanisms of glomerular filtration rate (i.e., GFR), especially the activities of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, sympathetic nerves, and the renin-angiotensin pathway; methods of tubular reabsorption with special attention to active transport in the proximal convoluted tubule and the related passive absorption of other materials; tubular secretion of wastes and as a means to achieve pH homeostasis; maintenance of sodium ion homeostasis by aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide; water conservation, concentration of urine, and the role of antidiuretic hormone in water regulation; countercurrent mechanisms; the application of urinalysis in disease diagnosis; the mode of action of diuretics; the assessment of renal clearance and glomerular filtration rate in evaluating the progress of kidney disorders; the means of storage and elimination of urine; the muscles related to elimination and their control; and the origins of renal insufficiency and hemodialysis. Topics for Discussion 1. Check out the new therapies for diabetes mellitus type II, a condition clearly related to the urinary system. Of special interest is insulin insensitivity (also sometimes called syndrome X or metabolic syndrome), potentially affecting around 30% of the American population, which can lead to this condition along with circulatory diseases. Websites from the National Institutes of Health will be helpful. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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chapt23im - CHAPTER 23 THE URINARY SYSTEM Chapter Overview...

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