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Chapt22im - CHAPTER 22 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter Overview Introduction To many people respiration means breathing in and out but it is a much

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86 CHAPTER 22: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter Overview Introduction To many people, respiration means breathing in and out, but it is a much more involved set of procedures including ventilation, gas movement, and cell respiration. This chapter primarily discusses the first two of these major processes. Ventilation activities ensure that air moves in and out of the alveoli in sufficient quantities to supply the needs of the cells involved in oxidative cell respiration. In order that this takes place, many subsidiary processes must go forward such as chest expansion and contraction, airways freed, and the alveoli remaining open. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: the anatomy of the respiratory system and the pathway of air from the outside of the body to the alveoli; the detailed arrangement and functions of the nose, larynx, trachea, and lungs; the tissues and their roles in the bronchial tree and alveoli; the importance of the pleurae in efficient ventilation; principles related to ventilation such as the laws of Boyle, Dalton, Henry, and Charles; the induction of differential pressures that culminate in successful ventilation; factors affecting airflow resistance; the maintenance of surface tension in the alveoli; dead air and the measurement of respiratory volumes and normal values; the control of respiratory movements by the nervous system: roles of voluntary control and the medulla oblongata, pons, and their inputs; partial pressures of air in the normal atmosphere as compared to that of the alveoli; Henry’s law and external respiration: the movement of gases between the alveolar space and the blood; the transport of gases to and from the tissues and the lungs including internal respiration; oxyhemoglobin dissociation curves and the factors that cause changes in those curves and the metabolic requirements of the tissues; the effect of carbon dioxide concentrations on ventilation rate and pH; mechanisms by which oxygenation irregularities cause disorders; the origin and course of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; the progress and consequences of lung cancers and significant infectious diseases of the respiratory system; and the processes of decompression sickness. Topics for Discussion 1. Ask the students to research sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Recent studies have shown that the defective center is in many cases a specific portion of the medulla oblongata and there seems to be a genetic input. Medical statisticians with the Indian Health Service have recently shown that a mother who drinks while pregnant is more likely to have an infant with SIDS but earlier research had shown that 70% of all SIDS children had mothers who smoked. There is also some evidence that excessive
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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Chapt22im - CHAPTER 22 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter Overview Introduction To many people respiration means breathing in and out but it is a much

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