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82 CHAPTER 21: THE LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS Chapter Overview Introduction The immune system can be very confusing but Prof. Saladin provides an outstanding and clear illumination of this vital topic. The defense of the body against infectious disease is manifold: primary protective mechanisms that are effective before pathogens enter the body (e.g., skin), non-specific defenses, and factors acting after the germs enter (i.e., the immune responses). The major thrust of chapter 21 pursues the modalities of the immune response. Among the most important players in the immune response are the helper T cells. Without this subclass of lymphocytes, the immune responses can barely proceed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles recognize the CD-4 receptor sites found on helper T cells; thus, destroying the most important part of the immune response. The continuing AIDS epidemic provides one of the major incentives for careful study of the immune system. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: the structure of the lymphatic system and its role in reabsorbing and transporting water, lipids, and solutes from the tissues; the activities of the lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, and spleen; differentiate between specific and nonspecific resistance; discuss the various methods of nonspecific defense against disease including the functions of the leukocytes and macrophages; explain the inflammatory process and the four cardinal signs; leukocyte movements to the site of inflammation and repair of damaged tissue; roles of interferons, cytokines, complement system, and fever; the types of antigens and antibodies; distinctions between humoral and cellular immunity; the functions of the subtypes of lymphocytes; specific pathways of humoral and cellular immunity; steps in antigen recognition and memory; antigen presentation, T-cell activation, and the actions of the cytotoxic T cells; the key role of helper T cells in the immune response; the activities of the cytotoxic T, regulatory T, and natural killer cells; modes of antibody attack; distinguish between the processes leading to passive and active immunity; the mechanisms of the allergic or hypersensitivity responses; fundamental causes of autoimmune and immune deficiency disorders; the transmission, progress and treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and neuroimmunology. Topics for Discussion
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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