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78 CHAPTER 20: THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS AND CIRCULATION Chapter Overview Introduction To fully grasp the circulatory system and the processes that may progress to heart disease, it is vital that one comprehend the functioning of blood vessels. Concepts such as tissue perfusion, flow dynamics, and capillary exchange are building blocks to understanding the everyday workings of the circulatory system. Successful anatomy and physiology students must also be able to trace a drop of blood from the heart to all major organs and back again to the heart. Prof. Saladin concludes by illuminating significant circulatory conditions such as aneurysms and hypertension. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: compare and contrast the structures of arteries, capillaries, and veins; the methods of control of perfusion of tissues; the functional anatomy of the different types of capillaries; activities and kinds of veins; the dynamic relationships between blood flow, pressure, and resistance; the factors affecting resistance and their influence upon flow; local, nervous, and hormonal control of vasoconstriction/vasodilation; the movement of materials into and out of capillaries; the mechanisms of capillary exchange with emphasis on pressure gradients and the control of filtration through the capillaries; mechanisms by which blood returns through the veins and its application to an understanding of low venous return shock; anatomy of the circulatory routes in the brain; details of the structure of the pulmonary circuit; layout of the systemic circuit: aorta and venae cavae, head and neck arteries and veins, and the major vessels of the extremities, trunk, and viscera; and the dangers of hypertension and the methods by which it develops. Topics for Discussion 1. Either obtain a copy of a human genome chart (obtainable from one of the biological supply houses) or go to one of the websites of the Human Genome Project and have a group of students try to determine the current state of the relationship between heredity and heart attack. 2. Work together to explore the incidence of varicose veins and their relationship to life style, work habits, gender, and heredity. 3. Lipid clogged carotid arteries are a major cause of strokes. There is a specific sound (“carotid bruits”) heard in those carotids that is different from that of normal carotids. It is possible to download those sounds from the Internet and play them during lecture or lab. Have the students discuss the impact of this information on the prevention of strokes. 4.
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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