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chapt17im - CHAPTER 17: THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Chapter...

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66 CHAPTER 17: THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Chapter Overview Introduction The endocrine system is similar to the nervous system and the senses because they are all concerned with how the body communicates and coordinates within itself. The endocrine system uses chemicals carried by the blood to cause changes in the activities of other cells. Two major things effect changes within the endocrine system itself: the secretions of the hypothalamus and feedback mechanisms. While the hypothalamus controls many of the activities of the adenohypophysis, the latter itself, through its secretions, controls numerous other endocrine organs. Endocrine organs help to coordinate feedback mechanisms that maintain homeostasis in diverse aspects of the body’s operations such as blood glucose and calcium levels, but other hormones help to synchronize the daily activity changes of our bodies. Certain endocrine glands produce very different types of hormones with divergent effects, even with opposing actions. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: the distinctions between the nervous and endocrine systems; the roles of the hypothalamus and adenohypophysis and the control of pituitary secretions; the functions of the posterior lobe of the pituitary; the importance of and mechanisms of feedback in the control of hormone production; the organs of origin and actions of major hormones such as growth hormone, antidiuretic hormone, the thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormone, the catecholamines, the corticosteroids, etc.; the chemical nature of various hormones plus their synthesis, transport, clearance, and interactions; hormone receptors, second messengers, enzyme amplification, and other changes coming about within the target cell; effects of hormone concentration and changes in numbers of receptor sites; the symptoms of diabetes mellitus and the distinctions in causes and treatments between the insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent forms; hormones coming from organs not primarily endocrine in function; the importance of hormone deactivation; eicosanoids and their relation to anti-inflammatory drugs; the stress reaction; the development and diagnosis of significant endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism, hyperpituitarism, diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, endemic goiter, Graves disease, hyperparathyroidism, pheochromocytoma, Cushing syndrome, SAD, and others; the history of insulin research. Topics for Discussion 1. Because of the marketing of growth hormone (i.e., GH) produced by genetically engineered bacteria, it is now possible to prevent dwarfism due to hypopituitarism. Some adults with hypopituitary dwarfism are upset with this development and have gone so far as to call it genocide. What does your class think of this issue? 2.
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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chapt17im - CHAPTER 17: THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Chapter...

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