chapt08im - CHAPTER 8: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter Overview...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
33 CHAPTER 8: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter Overview Introduction Chapter 8 examines the details of specific bones in the human body. The author first discusses major portions of the axial skeleton: skull, vertebral column, and the thoracic cage. The skull can be divided into cranial and facial bones. Cranial bones are those that are in contact with the brain. Facial bones are those not making up a part of the cranium. The vertebral column has five major types of bones in it: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. Along with the vertebrae, there is a feature designed to absorb shock: the intervertebral discs. The ribs and the sternum make up the thoracic cage. He next investigates the parts of the appendicular skeleton: the pectoral and pelvic girdles and the special features of these bones enabling characteristically human motions. Saladin has also included useful insights into the evolution of the human skeleton and some clinical aspects of bone abnormalities. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: itemize the major bones and their more significant features and functions; clarify the development of the skull; explain the functions of the bones associated with the skull; discuss the features of the fetal skull; describe a generalized vertebra and distinguish between the five types of vertebrae; show how the vertebral column helps to absorb stresses brought about by daily movements; describe the basic anatomy of the thoracic cage; elucidate the arrangement of the pectoral girdle with special attention to the scapula, elbow, and wrist structure; and the structure of the human pelvic girdle with particular emphasis on the adaptations required for efficient bipedal locomotion. Topics for Discussion 1. Compare and contrast a drawing of the skull, scapula, and pectoral girdle of a snake, lizard, or dinosaur to that of a contemporary mammal. 2. What are the consequences to a person when a disk ruptures? 3. Note the ridges inside the cranium, which are made by the gyri of the brain pressing against the soft infant skull. The students may be interested in discovering ways to determine the intellectual capabilities of an extinct form of human. 4. Challenge your students to tell whether it will be the radius or ulna that would break in a fall. The radius is more likely to break in a normal fall on a flat surface than the ulna. The reason for this is that the distal end of the radius is wider so that it “funnels” in more force to the bone. Related Readings Agur, A. and A.F. Dalley. 2008. Grant’s atlas of anatomy , 12 th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Clemente, C. D. 2010.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

Page1 / 4

chapt08im - CHAPTER 8: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter Overview...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online