chapt07im - CHAPTER 7 BONE TISSUE Chapter Overview...

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29 CHAPTER 7: BONE TISSUE Chapter Overview Introduction Saladin discusses the basic nature and development of osseous tissue in this chapter. He begins with a general treatment of the skeletal system and broad aspects of bones. The author then moves on to a discussion of bone histology with emphasis on the major cell types. The chapter continues with a survey of the microscopic structure of the osteon (or Haversian canal system) of compact bone and compares this to the organization of spongy bone. While the progress of intramembranous ossification is usually easy for students to grasp, the events surrounding endochondrial ossification are more complex. The major events in endochondrial ossification are: cartilage model formation, primary ossification center begins development, bony collar grows, marrow space emerges, metaphyseal zone activity, and secondary ossification. This chapter concludes with bone physiology and various aspects of pathology. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: functions of the skeleton; basic forms and functions of bones and their features; bone histology; the work of the bone cells; the microscopic structure and role of the osteon; the roles of red and yellow bone marrow; the steps in osteogenesis, especially the processes of intramembranous and of endochondrial ossification; the ramifications of mineral metabolism in the bones including calcium homeostasis, osteoporosis, activities of hormones (including vitamin D), and foreign elements; the types of and repair of fractures; and osteoporosis as well as other common, serious ailments of the bone. Topics for Discussion 1. Lead contamination whether in the environment or in bones is a large topic related to all sorts of things including bone and brain development. Lead is an analogue of calcium and will be absorbed preferentially over calcium in many cells. However, if there is a high calcium intake from the diet, mass flow will reduce the chance of lead deposition in tissues. Poverty favors lead exposure because (1) old, peeling, lead-based paint is more likely to be found in substandard housing and (2) people are less likely to eat the generally more expensive high-calcium foods. Lead was once a leading cause of mental retardation and has more recently also been linked in lower intake levels to a propensity to misbehavior in school. 2. Clearly there is a relationship between lactose intolerance and osteoporosis. What are some alternative calcium sources? Students may suggest bony fish but they should also consider cruciferous vegetables (cabbage family) and low-lactose dairy products such as cheese and yogurt. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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chapt07im - CHAPTER 7 BONE TISSUE Chapter Overview...

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