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Chapt04im - CHAPTER 4 GENETICS AND CELLULAR FUNCTION Chapter Overview Introduction Chapter 4 illuminates the processes collectively called the

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18 CHAPTER 4: GENETICS AND CELLULAR FUNCTION Chapter Overview Introduction Chapter 4 illuminates the processes collectively called the Central Dogma of Genetics. The Central Dogma is the generally accepted sequence of operations that begin with the inheritance of a gene, its transcription into RNA, and subsequent protein synthesis. Saladin also discusses Mendelian genetics at this time so that there is a clear linkage between the cellular and the organismic events. Among the more important items included under Mendalian genetics are dominance, population genetics, and sex-linked genes. Included in the presentation are ordinary cell division, mitosis, karyotyping, and the cell cycle. These concepts are necessary to understand the biology of cancer. Key Concepts Here are some concepts that students should have a better understanding of after reading this chapter: DNA structure, function, and replication; RNA synthesis by transcription and post-translational modification; the nature of the genetic code; translation or protein synthesis; gene regulation; posttranslational modification, packaging, and secretion; mutations; the cell cycle, including control and mitosis; cancer and its causes; the laws of genetic inheritance; and certain applications to population biology. Topics for Discussion 1. Ask your students what they would suggest to a modern King Solomon, should he have to decide which woman a child belonged to. The students should already be equipped with several approaches: checking for certain phenotypic characteristics and karyotypes such as those mentioned in Saladin and (pp. 134–136). Some students may also think of DNA fingerprinting or even of sequencing the DNA. 2. Students may be interested in looking at DNA fingerprints or even trying to perform one. Many companies sell supplies and are usually willing to provide copies of actual DNA fingerprints using one or another electrophoresis technique. 3. Have your students interview their family members to determine the prevalence of certain genetic traits such as: eye color, widow’s peak, ABO blood type and Rh blood type (the two systems have loci on different chromosomes), familial hypercholesteremia, familial Alzheimer disease, PKU, albinism, breast cancer, prostate cancer, Huntington Disease, non-syndromic deafness, hemophilia, color blindness, and sickle cell anemia. Some of these conditions are dominant, some recessive, some blending, some autosomal, some sex-linked, and others are poorly understood at this time. They can then draw up a pedigree to show how the condition has passed through the generations. Problems with this approach can arise since some genes are masked, many phenotypic characteristics are controlled by more than one locus, and numerous features are not always expressed (i.e., the penetrance issue). Be aware also that not everyone has the father they think they have! A human genome chart,
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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Chapt04im - CHAPTER 4 GENETICS AND CELLULAR FUNCTION Chapter Overview Introduction Chapter 4 illuminates the processes collectively called the

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