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chapt02im - CHAPTER 2: THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Chapter...

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CHAPTER 2: THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Chapter Overview Introduction Chapter 2 introduces chemistry needed to understand the wide-ranging and diverse functions of the body. This chapter first embarks upon an explanation of atomic structure including reviews of ionization and electrolytes. The author continues to the next level in the organizational hierarchy of the body by elucidating the formation of the molecules through chemical bonds. These molecules are then used as the basic building blocks of much larger functional units. Saladin next explores various types of mixtures, pH, energy and its relationship to metabolism. The smaller organic molecules are put together through dehydration syntheses to make much larger and more complex polymers: some of which are made of thousands of units of monomers. An understanding of the structure and function of the macromolecules of polymers is essential so that the student will be able to make sense of the actions of the cell’s organelles. Key Concepts : Here are some concepts that students should come away with after reading this chapter: atomic structure and weight, isotopes, radiation, and elements; the process of ionization, the significance of electrolytes, and the formation and importance of free radicals; the properties of water; mixtures: solutions, colloids, and suspensions; concentration measurement; acids, bases, and buffers; the measurement and importance of pH; matter and energy; reaction rates and metabolism; oxidation and reduction; the nature of molecules and the different types of chemical bonds; types of chemical reactions and the value of enzymes; work and energy and metabolism; an introductory understanding of the roles of other inorganic substances in the body; dehydration syntheses, monomers, polymers; the make-up of the most significant types of biochemicals in living things and their roles in health and disease; carbohydrates, including subtypes and examples of each; lipids, including subcategories and examples of each; amino acids and proteins, including the four levels of structure; the central role and functions of enzymes including substrate specificity, induced fit, effects of disruptions in homeostasis, coenzymes, and metabolic pathways; and the production and function of ATP and related compounds. Topics for Discussion 1. How is an understanding of pH necessary in diagnostic tests? The student might look at standard urinalysis and blood test report forms. 2. Make a list of the acids in a soft drink such as those in colas; determine the chemical structures of those acids. 3. List some common acids, bases, and salts. Get the students to start to think in terms of clinical applications. For example: Why would stomach or urinary pH matter in health and disease? 4.
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor William during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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chapt02im - CHAPTER 2: THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE Chapter...

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