Week_11_-_Review_of_the_nervous_system - Week 11 - Review...

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Week 11 - Review of the nervous system This section provides a brief review of basic principles of neural structure and function. For a more in-depth review, please consult Berne and Levy, Chapters 3, 4 and 6. Neural cells – Structure and Function There are two basic types of neural cells: neurons and glia . Neurons are polarized cells with a cell body ( soma ), several short extensions off the cell body that receive signals from neighboring neurons ( dendrites ), and a single, long extension ( axon ) covered with myelin that sends signals to recipient cells. Neurons are directly responsible for transmitting information through a complex interaction of electrical and chemical signals. A bundled group of neurons is called a nerve . Glial cells play a supportive role by providing structural support and insulation to neurons, and remove neurotransmitters at the synapse. Glial cells come in a variety of specialized forms, including oligodendrocytes (which produce myelin in the central nervous system), Schwann cells (which produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system) and astrocytes. Unlike neurons, glia do not transmit electrical signals.
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This note was uploaded on 02/10/2012 for the course PHY 495 taught by Professor Hess during the Summer '11 term at Alabama.

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Week_11_-_Review_of_the_nervous_system - Week 11 - Review...

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