Week_10_Kidney_Physiology

Week_10_Kidney_Physiology - Week 10 - Kidney Physiology...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Week 10 - Kidney Physiology Function The kidneys are excretory organs that provide regulatory support for body homeostasis . One specific function of the kidneys is to excrete waste (including soluble xenobiotics and conjugates) from the blood through the formation of urine. The kidneys also act to regulate levels of water and certain solutes (e.g. salts). In addition, hormones and enzymes produced by the kidney are key in the regulation of blood pressure, the maintenance of stable pH levels in blood and other body fluids, the regulation of calcium metabolism and the production of red blood cells. In coordination with the cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems, the kidneys regulate the volume and composition of body fluids within a very narrow range. Because of the kidneys' homeostatic role, damage to the kidneys can result in significant physiological changes that are not limited to the organ itself, but extend to the entire body. Anatomy and Physiology of the Kidney The paired kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity, near the posterior wall. Each kidney is covered by an outer capsule . Underneath the capsule is a layer of tissue called the cortex and an inner zone known as the medulla . Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery and leaves via the renal vein. The cortex receives the bulk of the blood flow to the kidney and has a much higher rate of oxygen utilization than the medulla. Urine , the waste-containing fluid formed in the tissues of the kidney, is
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
collected and passes through the renal pelvis and out the ureter . from: www.biocourse.com Structure of a Human Kidney Diagram: see http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk Renal hilus: The renal hilus is the area of the kidney through which the ureter leaves and other structures including blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter/leave the kidney. Renal capsule: The renal capsule is a smooth, transparent, fibrous membrane that surrounds, encloses
Background image of page 2
and protects the kidney. Each kidney has it's own renal capsule (outer layer), which helps to maintain the shape of the kidney as well as protecting it from damage. The renal capsule is itself surrounded by a mass of fatty tissue that also helps to protect the kidney from damage by cushioning it in cases of impact or sudden movement. Renal cortex: The renal cortex is the outer part of the kidney. The Bowman's Capsules and the glomeruli are located here, in addition to the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and their associated blood supplies (these structures make up the nephrons). Renal medulla: The renal medulla is the inner part of the kidney. The renal pyramids are found here. Renal pyramids: There are approx. 5 - 18 striated triangular structures called "renal pyramids" within the renal medulla of each kidney. The appearance of striations is due to many straight tubules and blood vessels within the renal pyramids. Renal pelvis:
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 12

Week_10_Kidney_Physiology - Week 10 - Kidney Physiology...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online