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Chapter 1 Introduction to SAS

Chapter 1 Introduction to SAS - STAT1303 Data Management 1...

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STAT1303 Data Management 1. Introduction to SAS 1 Introduction to SAS In this chapter, a computer software SAS is introduced for data management. As we know that the amount of data is huge in the real world, performing data analysis manually becomes infeasible. It is desirable to analyze and manage the data set by computer software. 1.1 Background of SAS SAS stands for Statistical Analysis System which is designed for statistical analyses. Over time the system has evolved to include a collection of integrated software products providing data entry/management/analysis, report writing, statistical analysis, forecasting, data mining, other analysis tools in specific areas and etc. Typically, SAS are divided into the following program modules: Name Use BASE Data input, data management and simple statistical analysis GRAPH Graphics STAT Statistical analysis ACCESS Data access solution ETS Time series forecasting INSIGHT Interactive data analysis etc. To invoke SAS, we can either click ’ Start All Programs Statistics Applications SAS SAS 9.2 (English) , or click the SAS icon on the computer desktop. Then, the start-up screen is shown as follows: HKU STAT1303 (2011-12, Semester 1) 1
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STAT1303 Data Management 1. Introduction to SAS Under SAS application environments, 5 main windows are shown on the screen 1. Program Editor Enter, edit and submit SAS programs 2. Log Display messages about SAS sessions and programs that you submit 3. Output Display output from SAS programs that have been run 4. Explorer View and manage SAS files; perform most file management tasks 5. Result Manage output (results) from SAS programs that have been run; view, save and print segments of output 1.2 Key Concepts of SAS Programming Now, some key concepts of SAS are introduced. Typically, SAS programming is centered around data which are stored in data sets . Indeed, data sets are physical files which store the data in a tabular form. The content of data sets can be the input or the output of SAS program components. For example, we can read a data file which contains the final examination scores of STAT1303 into the SAS system. Then, the scores are saved in a data set file. Alternatively, we can calculate the mean and standard deviation of the scores and the results are stored in a data set. Under the SAS environments, 2 major types of SAS program components are available, namely, Data Step and Procedure (PROC) . Then, a SAS program can be made up of a single Data Step, a single PROC or a combination of Data Steps and PROCs. Typically, a SAS program contains both Data Steps and PROCs. The Data Step has a number of di ff erent functions. A major function is to convert raw data into a SAS data set. In addition, Data Step provides programming functionality similar to other programming languages. For example, the control flow statements such as IF-THEN statement, DO -loop statement and etc. can be used to alter the sequence of actions within a data set. Therefore, the Data Step can range from the very simple to very complex.
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