9.1 - Neuroscience and Behavior History of the Mind Phrenology In 1800 Franz Gall suggested that bumps of the skull represented mental abilities His

9.1 - Neuroscience and Behavior History of the Mind...

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Neuroscience and Behavior History of the Mind: Phrenology - In 1800, Franz Gall suggested that bumps of the skull represented mental abilities. His theory, though incorrect, nevertheless proposed different mental abilities were modular. Neural Communication: The body’s information system is built from billions of interconnected cells called neurons . Neuron - a nerve cell or a neuron consists of many different parts. Dendrite - responsible for receiving messages from other neurons (feelers) Axon - passes the message on to the next neuron (extends away from the cell body) Myelin Sheath - cylindrical cover over the axon that helps speed up the delivery of the message Action Potential - it is a neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon generated by the movement positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane. Action Potential Properties: All or None Response: When depolarizing current exceeds the threshold a neuron will fire, and below threshold it will not. Intensity of an action potential remains the same, throughout the length of the axon. Synapse: a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap , or synaptic cleft . Neurotransmitters: chemical transmitters released from the sending neuron, travel across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential.
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