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9.3 - Nature Nurture and Human Diversity Similarities Genes...

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Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity: Similarities: Genes : Same set of chromosomes Biology: the organs and body functions the same Brain : same brain architecture Behavioral : speak language Differences: Genes : Genetic anomalies may make us different Biology : may change during development Brain : asymmetry across genders Behavioral : speak different language Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences: Behavior Geneticists: study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity and environment. Genes: Our Codes for Life: In the nucleus of a cell, chromosomes containing DNA are situated Segments within DNA constitute genes making proteins to determine our development Genome: the set of complete instructions for making an organism containing all the genes in that organism. Thus human genome makes us human and the genome for drosophila makes it a common house fly. Twin Biology: To study the effects of heredity and environment two sets of twins, identical, and fraternal, have come in handy. Behavior Geneticists study the effects of shared and unique environments on total or partial genetic makeup. Separated Twins : A number of studies have looked at identical twins raised separately from birth, or close thereafter, and have found a number of similarities. Personality, intelligence, abilities, attitudes, interests, fears, brain waves, heart rate Critics of separated twin studies note that such similarities can be found between strangers. However, researchers point out that differences between fraternal twins are greater than identical twins. Adoption Studies : opposed to twin studies, adoption studies suggest that adoptees (who may be biologically unrelated) tend to be different from their adoptive parents and siblings. Adoptive studies strongly point to the simple fact that biologically related children turn out to be different in a family. So investigators ask: Do siblings have differing experiences? Do siblings, despite sharing half of their genes, have different combinations of the other half genes? Ultimate Question : does parenting have an effect?
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Parenting: Parenting does have an effect on biologically related and unrelated children Parenting influences children’s: attitudes, values, manners, beliefs, faith, and politics Temperament Studies:
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