9.17 - Sensation and Perception (modules 14-17) HEARING The...

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Sensation and Perception (modules 14-17) HEARING The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves: Sound waves are composed of compression and rarefaction of air molecules. Acoustical Transduction: The transformation of the vibrating air into nerve impulses, which our brain codes as sounds. Frequency (Pitch): Intensity (Loudness): Quality (Timbre): Timbre is the quality or tone of a sound. For instance, different instrument sounds such as the horn and the trombone. Overtones: THE EAR
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Outer Ear: Pinna. Collects sounds. Middle Ear: Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window. Inner Ear: Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs. Cochlea: Cochlea - a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses. Theories of Audition: 1. Place Theory: Helmholtz presumed that we hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea’s basilar membrane. Thus, the brain can determine a sound’s pitch by recognizing the place on the membrane from which it receives neural signals. Does not explain how we hear low-pitched sounds. 2. Frequency Theory: It suggests an alternative explanation for how we detect pitch. The whole basilar membrane vibrates with the incoming sound wave, triggering neural impulses to the brain at the same rate as the sound wave. If the sound wave has a frequency of 100 waves per second, then 100 pulses per second travel up the auditory nerve. Localization of Sounds:
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Because we have two ears, sounds that reach one ear faster than the other makes us localize the sound. 1. Intensity differences
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2012 for the course PSYC 2000 taught by Professor Munson during the Fall '10 term at LSU.

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9.17 - Sensation and Perception (modules 14-17) HEARING The...

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