Unit 7- Learning

Unit 7- Learning - LEARNING: Learning is a relatively...

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LEARNING: Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. Learning thus is flexible based on the types of experiences one has. How do we learn? We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle, 2000 years ago, suggested this law of association. Then 200 years ago Locke and Hume reiterated this law. Stimulus-Stimulus Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another Stimulus 1: Lighting + Stimulus 2: Thunder Response-Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence Classical Conditioning: Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories; however it was a Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work became seminal for later behaviorists like John Watson and B.F. Skinner Pavlov’s Experiments : Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). The tone (neutral stimulus) does not. During conditioning, neutral stimulus (tone) and US (food) are paired resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR) Unconditioned Stimulus (US): something that naturally and automatically triggers the unlearned response. Ex: the food itself Unconditioned Response (UR): event that occurs naturally in response to some stimulus Ex: salivating at the smell of food Conditioned Stimulus (CS): an originally neutral stimulus that, through learning, comes to be associated with some learned response. Ex: The tone
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Conditioned Response (CR): the learned response to the originally neutral but now conditioned stimulus. Ex: Salivating at the sound of the tone Acquisition: Acquisition is the initial stage in classical conditioning during which association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place. 1. Neutral stimulus needs to come before the US for conditioning to occur (most cases) Ringing the bell, and then presenting the food 2. The time between the two stimuli should be about half a second. Extinction: When an unconditioned stimulus (food) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (tone), the conditioned response (salivation) starts to decrease and at some point goes extinct. Spontaneous Recovery: After a rest period an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers, and if CS (tone) persists alone becomes extinct again. Stimulus Generalization:
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2012 for the course PSYC 2000 taught by Professor Munson during the Fall '10 term at LSU.

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Unit 7- Learning - LEARNING: Learning is a relatively...

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