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Unit 8-Memory

Unit 8-Memory - UNIT 8 MEMORY The Phenomenon of Memory...

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UNIT 8: MEMORY The Phenomenon of Memory: Memory : is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information Flashbulb Memory: A unique and highly emotional moment can give rise to clear, strong, and persistent memory called Flashbulb Memory . This memory is not free from errors. Stages of Memory: Encoding, Storing, Retrieval Information Processing: Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory , b) short- term memory, and c) long-term memory Problems with the Model: 1. Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. 2. Since we cannot focus all the sensory information in the environment, we select information (through attention) that is important to us. 3. The nature of short-term memory is more complex. Working Memory: Working Memory : Proposes working memory to contain auditory, visual processing controlled by central executive, through episodic buffer. ENCODING Encoding- Getting Information In: How We Encode 1. Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed. 2. However, novel information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort. Automatic Processing: An enormous amount of information is processed effortlessly by us, like: 1. Space : While reading a textbook, you automatically encode place of a picture on a page. 2. Time : We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day. 3. Frequency : You effortlessly keep track of things that happened to you. Effortful Processing:
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Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories. Rehearsal: The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to relearn them on Day 2. Memory Effects: 1. Next-in-line-Effect : When your recall is better for what other people say but poor for a person just before you in line. 2. Spacing Effect : We retain information better when out rehearsal is distributed over time. 3. Serial Position Effect : when your recall is better for first and last items, but poor for middle items on a list. Spacing Effect: Spacing Effect : (distributed rehearsal) is better than massed practice. Serial Position Effect: 1. TUV 2. ZOF 3. GEK 4. WAV 5. XOZ 6. TIK 7. FUT 8. WIB 9. SAR 10. POZ 11. REY 12. GIJ Encoding Meaning: “Whale” Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter? A: Structural Encoding Q: Did the word rhyme with the word “weight”? A: Phonemic Encoding Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________
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Unit 8-Memory - UNIT 8 MEMORY The Phenomenon of Memory...

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