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Unit 9- Thinking, Language and Intelligence

Unit 9- Thinking, Language and Intelligence - UNIT 9...

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UNIT 9: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence Thinking: Thinking : or cognition refers to the process that involves knowing, understanding, and communicating. Cognitive Psychologists: Thinking involves a number of mental activities listed below, and cognitive psychologists study them with great detail. 1. Concepts 2. Problem solving 3. Decision making 4. Judgment formation Concepts: Concepts: mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. For example, there are a variety of chairs but their common features define the concept of chair . Category Hierarchies: We organize concepts into category hierarchies. Development of Concepts: We form some concepts by definitions, e.g., triangle has three sides. But mostly we form concepts by a mental image or a best example (prototype) e.g., robin is a prototype of a bird but penguin is not. Categories: Once we place an item in a category our memory shifts toward the category prototype. A computer generated face that was 70 percent Caucasian led people to classify it as Caucasian. Problem Solving: There are two ways to solve problems: 1. Algorithms 2. Heuristics Algorithms: Algorithms : Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
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Algorithms exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. They take a long time. Computers use algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word, using an algorithm approach would take 907,208 possibilities. Heuristics: Heuristics: simple thinking strategies that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Speedier but more error-prone than algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G P S Y C H O L O G Y Try putting Y at the end and see if the word starts to make sense. Insight: Insight: involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem Humans and animals have insight. Brain imaging and EEG studies suggest that when an insight strikes (“Aha” experience) it activates the right temporal cortex. The time between not knowing the solution to knowing it is 0.3 seconds. Obstacles in Solving Problems: Confirmation Bias : A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias. 2-4-6 Rule: Any ascending series of numbers. 1-2-3 would comply. Subjects had difficulty figuring out the rule due to confirmation bias. Fixation: Fixation : Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. It is an impediment to problem solving. Two examples are a mental set and functional fixedness . Functional Fixedness: our tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanging. (Ex: mounting the matchbox on the wall) Mental Set : A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way-especially a way that has been successful in the past Examples: The Matchstick Problem : How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
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The Candle Mounting Problem Using and Misusing Heuristics: Two kinds of heuristics have been identified by cognitive psychologists. Representative and Availability heuristics.
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