Unit 10- Motivation and Work

Unit 10- Motivation and Work - UNIT 10: MOTIVATION AND WORK...

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UNIT 10: MOTIVATION AND WORK Motivation: Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. Perspectives on Motivation: Four perspectives to explain motivation include: 1. Instinct Theory. 2. Drive-Reduction Theory. 3. Arousal Theory. 4. Hierarchy of Motives. Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout species and are unlearned. Drive-Reduction Theory: When the instinct theory of motivation failed, it was replaced by drive-reduction theory. Physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Drive Reduction: Physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis – maintenance of steady internal state, e.g., maintenance of steady body temperature. Incentive: Where our needs push, incentives (positive or negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives. A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels strong hunger drive. Optimum Arousal: States that human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal, but to seek optimum levels of arousal. Young monkeys and children are known to explore environment in the absence of a need-based drive. Hierarchy of Needs: Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested some needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs like achievement, self-esteem, and need for recognition. Hierarch of Needs:
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The Physiology of Hunger: Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger. Stomachs Removed: Tsang (1938) removed rat stomachs connected the esophagus to the small intestines, and yet the rats felt hungry (and ate food). Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6: Glucose level in the blood is maintained. Insulin decreases glucose in blood making us feel hungry. Levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by receptors (neurons) in the stomach, liver, intestines, and they send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain. Hypothalamic Centers: Lateral hypothalamus (LH) brings on hunger (stimulation). Destroy it and the animal has no interest in eating. Reduction of blood glucose stimulates orexin in LH, which leads to ravenous eating in rats. Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) depresses hunger (stimulation). Destroy it and the animal eats excessively. Set-Point Theory: Manipulating lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus alters the body’s “weight thermostat.” If weight is lost – food intake increases and energy expenditure decreases. If weight is gained – the opposite takes place. The Psychology of Hunger:
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Unit 10- Motivation and Work - UNIT 10: MOTIVATION AND WORK...

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